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ASPECTS OF THE JEWISH QUESTION 



fr 



ASPECTS OF THE 
JEWISH QUESTION 

BY A QUARTERLY REVIEWER 



WITH A MAP 



1 y 



3 



LONDON 

JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET 
1902 



PREFACE 



This book is reprinted, with alterations and 
considerable additions, from the article on 
" Zionism and Anti - Semitism," which I 
contributed to the Quarterly Revieiv, April 
1902. I am glad to take this opportunity of 
expressing my thanks to the editor and to 
the proprietor of that periodical for the 
necessary permission which they have kindly 
conceded. 

My chief object in expanding and re- 
publishing the essay has been to make an 
impartial survey of the Jewish question in 
Europe. All the books and pamphlets — and 
they are many — which have been written in 
various languages on the subject err by 
the common defect of narrowing the outlook. 
The writer in each instance sets out to prove 
something, and he selects his facts in order 
to suit his conclusion. It is natural enough 
that Jewish writers should seek to justify 
their race, and it is comprehensible at least 

V 



vi 



PREFACE 



that the detractors of the Jews should confine 
their record to evidences making for anti- 
Semitism. Unfortunately, the result has been 
that, instead of one Jewish problem, there 
seem to be half-a-dozen. There is the problem 
of the conversionist associations, with their 
somewhat hysterical propaganda, who profess 
to admire the Jewish race, and to desire above 
all things that it should embrace Christian 
dogma. There is the problem^ — of — thsL 
philosophic Radicals, who would let the Je.ws 
practise any form of religion that pleases 
them, as long as that form does not require 
the maintenance of a separate race. Then 
— there is the Tory problem of the statisticians 
and economists, who avoid in their speeches 
calling a spade a spade, and to whom we owe 
a Jewish question under the name of an anti- 
alien movement. And there is a party of 
suiTcnder among the Jews themselves, who 
make a glory of the title of alien by asserting 
their national unity. 

It is obvious that, though these opinions 
may co-exist, they are not compatible. You 
cannot assimilate a population which is con- 
spiring with the Turks for a grant of territory 
in Palestine. You cannot open churches for 
a people whom you turn back from your ports. 



PREFACE 



vii 



You cannot expect the Jews to develop their 
best powers peacefully, amid simultaneous 
shouts of "Be Christians!" "Be Aryans I" 
^*Be Zionists!" and "Be off!". 

The confusion of remedies points to an 
imperfect diagnosis. It is conceivable that, 
when the Jewish question is reconsidered in 
the broader aspect which 1 have tried to 
present, the need of a violent method will 
disappear. After all, it is a dangerous thing, 
however common the habit, to generalise 
about the Jews. Anti-Semitic literature is 
constantly testifying to this fact, and the 
Zionists, if ever their scheme came to a 
practical issue, would soon discover it for 
themselves. But if one is to generalise about 
the Jews, as the mere name of anti-Semitism 
requires, and as so frequently happens in the 
prejudice of ordinary life, at least let us be 
certain that we know who these Jews are, 
what they believe, on what they wait, how 
they have been treated, and how they have 
borne the test. It is only to-day that our 
comparative historians in the new encyclopaedias 
have discovered — to use a stock phrase — the 
inevitableness of the Jewish problem in the 
reaction of modern Western Jewry from medi- 
eval conditions. If the accompanying map be 



viii 



PREFACE 



consulted, it will be seen that the pressure of 
Jews westward is not likely to cease till the 
Russian Pale is broken down. And the 
Russian Pale will not be broken down till 
the Jews of Russia have succeeded, like the 
Jews of England before them, in asserting 
their right to civil and religious liberty. 
Liberty in Russia is non-existent ; when 
Russia has learnt its blessing, Russian Jews 
will share in it. The real problem of the 
twentieth century is the backwardness of the 
nations, not the forwardness of the Jews. 
Meanwhile, the westernmost countries do well 
to protect themselves. Great Britain is bound 
to scrutinise her immigrants from time ta 
time, and to see that they do not abuse her 
receptive capacity. But there is no escape 
from this circle. The solution which would 
make Roumanian or Russian Jewry the type 
and standard of Jewish life, and would drag 
down the Jews, say, of England, to the level 
of a persecuted race, betraying the record of 
nineteen centuries, is false, retrograde, and 
unpractical. 

My belief in the foredoomed failure of neo- 
Zionism, my objection to its leaders' readiness 
to " make capital," in Mr Zangwill s words, of 
the " longing for Palestine " (as if to say that 



PREFACE 



ix 



the name of Isaiah has been added to the 
directorate of Zion, Limited), and my con- 
viction that neither Turkey nor the Great 
Powers would ever seriously consider the 
project, are independent of my admiration 
for Dr Theodor Herzl himself I venture to 
take this opportunity of enrolling myself among 
his admirers, not at all because I conceive that 
he will be otherwise than indifferent to my 
sentiment, but because, among many kind 
things which were said of my Quarterly article, 
I was blamed in certain quarters for attacking " 
the author of " The Jewish State " and President 
of the Zionist Congress. The attack on the 
scheme must stand for what it is worth, but 
there is nothing personal in its intention. I 
have twice had the pleasure of meeting Dr 
Herzl; once, in Vienna, in 1896, and again, in 
London, this year. On each occasion he has 
allowed me to express my disagreement from 
his views, and on each, and especially on the 
second, I have been deeply sensible of the 
single - mindedness, the devotion, and the 
sincerity which inspire the leader of this hope. 
He does, I believe, more harm than good, but 
the conclusion of the matter lies on the knees 
of the gods. 

In preparing this little book for the Press, 



X 



PREFACE 



I have had the advantage of the help of the 
Rev. Isidore Harris, M.A., editor of the 
"Jewish Year Book," in reading the proofs 
and compihng the bibhography, and I am 
further indebted to other friends and corre- 
spondents for assistance and advice. If the 
book does something to promote the cause 
of Jewish progress and reform, which the 
writer has sincerely at heart, his purpose will 
be thoroughly fulfilled, and his debt to those 
who have helped him will be discharged. 

London, September 1902. 



CONTENTS 



CHAP. PAGE 

PREFACE V 

I. THE PROBLEM AND SOME SOLUTIONS 1 

II. ZIONISM AS A SOLUTION 14 

III. THE JEWISH QUESTION IN THE LIGHT OP JEWISH ETHICS 

AND HISTORY 25 

IV. PRESENT CONDITIONS 45 

V. SPIRITUAL FORCES IN JUDAISM 69 

APPENDIX 81 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 89 



ASPECTS OF THE JEWISH QUESTION 



CHAPTER I 

THE PROBLEM AND SOME SOLUTIONS 

In the long annals of Israel the calendar is 
marked with red days and with black. Reddest 
of the red, for instance, is the glorious Fifteenth 
of Nissan — the spring festival of liberty — the 
day of the Redemption from Egypt by the 
hand of Moses the Deliverer. This, the earliest 
feast of freedom, is still religiously celebrated 
by the Jews with the fine old hymn of 
liberation : 

" I will sing unto the Lord, for he hath 
triumphed gloriously : the horse and his rider 
hath he thrown into the sea. . . . The Lord 
shall reign for ever and ever." 

A black day is the fateful Ninth of Ab 
(corresponding to a date in August), which 
the Jews observe as the anniversary of the 
destruction of the Temple of Jerusalem by 
Nebuzaradan, chief of the guard to Nebuchad- 
nezzar. The fast appointed for this date is 

A 



2 THE PROBLEM AND SOME SOLUTIONS [cbav. 



no longer, we believe, universal in Israel, 
though the Jew repeats the words of Jeremiah : 

" Is there no balm in Gilead ; is there no 
physician there? . . . For death is come up 
into our windows, and is entered into our 
palaces, to cut off the children from without, 
and the young men from the streets." 

But the nearness of the white fast in Tishri 
(in September or October), which is literally 
kept as a solemn day of fasting and atonement 
at the end of the penitential season, and before 
the week of rejoicing, has detracted a little 
from the severity of the ordinance for the fast 
of Ab. Still, it is marked with black in that 
curiously complicated calendar, with its sacred 
new year and its civil new year, its Greek 
astronomy and Babylonian nomenclature, its 
refinements of Rabbinical law, unaffrighted by 
Copernican astronomy, and its wonderful 
procession of feast-days and fast-days — Simchat 
Torah, Hanukah, Purim, Sebuyot — names that 
have been music in the ears of countless 
generations of Israelites, in Zion and in exile, 
and that come home to them to-day — come 
verily to their homes — with so intimate a 
thrill. 

Time has added to the record. February 
the 4th, for instance, is marked in the 
calendar of English Jews as Resettlement 
Day — the supposed anniversary of Cromwell's 



I] 



BLACK DAYS 



3 



repeal of the prohibition in 1655 ; and two 
hundred years later we come to July the 26th, 
1858, when Baron Rothschild took his seat in 
the House of Commons. It had required 
nearly six centuri^^s for this victory of tolerance 
after the expulsioa of the Jews in 1290. But 
the mediaeval additions to the Jewish calendar 
consist, for the most part, of days marked 
with black. The index to Graetz, in the 
last volume of his "History of the Jews," is 
eloquent at this point. There are twenty 
references to Jewish expulsions from European 
countries, ranging from the eleventh century 
right down to the eighteenth ; and besides these, 
there is the black list of Jewish massacre and 
persecution : " Jews massacred in Alsace," " Jews 
massacred in Alexandria," "Jews massacred in 
France," "Jews massacred in Germany," four 
times in a hundred years, " Jews massacred in 
Poland," "in London," "in Norwich," "in 
Spain," "Jews oppressed in North Africa," 
" Jews persecuted in Brandenburg " — up and 
down the Jewish year these entries, and 
entries like these, commemorate in a line of 
cold print the unspeakable agony and suffering 
of the long-drawn-out Middle Ages. 

Time is still adding to the record. The last 
day marked with black in the almanac of Israel 
is perhaps the blackest of all because it comes 
so late in his annals. At the end of the 



4 THE PROBLEM AND SOME SOLUTIONS [chap. 



nineteenth centurj^ which Mr Gladstone in his 
hasty way described as an era of emancipation, 
the Jews might surely have expected that 
active persecution would cease, and that they 
would be free to devote themselves to the 
work of conquering and correcting the passive 
forces of prejudice and dislike. Yet, according 
to the contributor of the admirable article 
" Anti-Semitism " in the first volume of the 
new "Jewish Encyclopaedia,"^ the birthday of 
that movement and its father are both of very 
recent memory. There was a dissolution of 
the German Imperial Diet in the late summer 
of 1878, shortly after Hodel's attempt on the 
life of the old Emperor William. This event 
was represented as the work of Socialists, 
and Socialism is notoriously atheistic. The 
Social Democrats of the Fatherland are the 
leaders of the revolt against conventional 
religion. Here, then, the party wire-pullers 
found a unique opportunity. The general 
election of July the 3Gth, 1878, brought an 
increase of Conservative members ; and " this," 
continues the writer of the article, "may be 
considered the birthday of anti - Semitism." 
Later on in the same paragraph we learn 
that Adolf Stocker, the Court chaplain, was 
the author of the cry. The Emperor has 
since had good cause to rid himself of this 

1 New York : Funk & Wagnal. 



I.] BIRTHDAY OF ANTI-SEMITISM 5 



turbulent priest. Stocker has been unfrocked, 
and the broadcloth Socialism, which his preach- 
ments established, is no longer an engine 
of much political force. But the mischief was 
done. Stocker's influence went to found the 
party of Christian Socialists, which was to 

win the masses of the people to the Con- 
servative programme " by a judicious admixture 
of socialistic ingredients. 

Or take the similar account of the matter 
from the first supplementary volume to the 
*' Encyclopaedia Britannica " : — 

" Anti-Semitism," declares the writer, " is, 
then, exclusively a question of European politics, 
and its origin is to be found not in the long 
struggle between Europe and Asia, or between 
the Church and the Synagogue, which filled so 
much of ancient and medieval history, but in the 
social conditions resulting from the emancipa- 
tion of the Jews in the middle of the 19th 
century. . . . Towards the end of 1879 it spread 
with sudden fury over the whole of Germany. 
This outburst, at a moment when no new 
financial scandals or other illustrations of Semitic 
demoralisation and domination were before the 
public, has never been fully explained. It is 
impossible to doubt, however, that the secret 
springs of the new agitation were more or less 
directly supplied by Prince Bismarck him- 
self. . . . He began to recognise in anti- 
Semitism a means of * dishing ' the Judaized 
liberals, and to his creatures who assisted him in 
his press campaigns he dropped significant hints 
in this sense (Busch, Bismarck, ii. 453-54 ; iii. 16). 



6 THE PROBLEM AND SOME SOLUTIONS [chap. 



He even spoke of a new Kulturkam]pf against the 
Jews {ibid., ii. p. 484). How these hints were 
acted upon has not been revealed, but it is suffi- 
ciently instructive to note that the final breach 
with the National Liberals took place in July, 
1879, and that it was immediately followed by 
a violent revival of the anti-Semitic agita- 
tion. ... In October an anti-Semitic league 
was founded in Berlin and Dresden. . . . The 
leadership of the agitation was now definitely 
assumed by a man who combined with social 
influence, oratorical power, and inexhaustible 
energy, a definite scheme of social regeneration 
and an organisation for carrying it out. This 
man was Adolf Stoecker (born 1835), one of the 
Court Preachers. . . . The Conservatives sup- 
ported him, partly to satisfy their old grudges 
against the Liberal bourgeoisie, and partly because 
Christian Socialism, with its anti-Semitic appeal 
to ignorant prejudice, was likely to weaken the 
hold of the Social Democrats on the lower 
classes." 

To the black days, accordingly, in the me- 
morial calendar of Israel, July the 30th, 1878, is 
now indelibly added. Twenty years earlier, 
almost to a day. Baron Rothschild, as we have 
seen, had taken his seat in the British House of 
Commons, thus ending, for England at least, the 
long history of religious disability. And now 
the interminable cycle was renewed : anti- 
Semitism was born in Germany. We may 
minimise the movement as we will, and carefully 
discriminate between anti-Semitism and anti- 
Judaism, between Stocker's propaganda of 



I] THE INTERMINABLE CYCLE 7 



Christian Sociahsm, involving a boycott of 
financiers, and Torquemadas programme of 
Christianisation, involving the burning of 
heretics ; yet the fact remains that at the ^ 
opening of the twentieth century, as at the 
opening of the sixteenth, there is antagonism 
towards the Jews, varying locally in its degree 
of intensity, from the active, legislative per- 
secution in Roumania, to the Commission on 
Alien Immigration, demanded by the conditions 
in this country. From the extreme south-east to 
the extreme north-west of Europe, the path of 
religious liberty is crossed by that shadow. 
In the careful words of the editor of "The 
Jewish Year Book " : 

" The dawn of the twentieth century finds the 
Jews in many countries groaning under dis- 
abihties . . . which seem to mock at all ideas of 
human progress. As one reads of them, one 
almost fancies that time must have moved 
backward instead of forward. . . . For the un- 
pleasant truth is forced upon us that a large 
portion of Europe is still plunged in the darkness 
of the Middle Ages." 

Why is this ? Why are the Jews, who still 
worship the God of their fathers, subject to this 
terrible fate ? Why, when they have been 
released from their religious ghetto, are they 
thrust back into a ghetto of racial segregation ? 
Why, when they have hardly relaxed the rigour 
of their fast for Zion, are synagogues fired to-day 



8 THE PROBLEM AND SOME SOLUTIONS [chap. 



by riotous crowds in Germany, Algeria, and 
elsewhere? Why, when they still observe the 
day of emancipation from Pharaoh, has a new 
Moses arisen with the same promise as of old, 
to lead them out of the house of bondage 
into a land flowing with milk and honey, as 
in the new Zionism, with Dr Herzl as its 
prophet ? 

The authorities lend us scant aid in answer- 
ing these questions. The non-Jewish writers 
on the subject, whose books we have examined 
for the purpose, seem to lack both breadth and 
precision of view. Three such books lie before 
us. Something, doubtless, must be allowed for 
the apostolic preoccupation of Mr Baron, author 
of "The Ancient Scriptures and the Modern 
Jew,"^ who unctuously commends his volume, 
"the result of spare moments saved in a very 
busy life of service for Christ among His own 
nation, to Him who condescends to bless the 
things that are weak and small," and who writes 
that the Jewish question " is fast becoming an 
international one." " To the Bible student," he 
avers, " with the key of the future in his hand, 
it is very interesting to watch some of the more 
recent phases in the development of this ques- 
tion," and to observe how " the great God is, in 
His providence, now rapidly preparing the way 
for its final and only possible solution." A¥hat 
' Hodder & Stoughton, 1900. 



I] A CONVERSIONIST'S VIEW 9 

this solution is to be is explained with chory- 
bantic touches on page 179 : — 

"Jesus is the Way: *No man cometh to 
the Father but by Me.' There is no other way. 
Jesus is the Truth, the full and whole truth of 
God : ' The law was given by Moses ; grace and 
truth came by Jesus Christ.' And Jesus is 
Life : ' This is life eternal that they might know 
Thee, the only true God and Jesus Christ whom 
Thou hast sent.' Although the Jews have the 
law, they cannot come to God, because Jesus is 
the Way. Although they have the Old Testa- 
ment, they do not know the truth, because Jesus 
is the Truth and Life ! Until we come to see 
Jesus, until we come to the atonement He made 
for us, until we come to know the ' Lamb of 
God,' we do not know God the Father. Yes, 
there are sighs ; there are misgivings ; there are 
fears ; there are mournings ; there are longings 
in the human heart towards God — but adoption 
and true spiritual life there is none, where Christ 
has not kindled it. Israel in its present state, 
the Christless Israel, shows this to the whole 
world. Notwithstanding the great activity and 
energy of the religious life of the Jews, they 
have — we say it with great sorrow — no life 
indeed — what they have is all carnal — and this 
accounts for the phenomena that they have 
not been of much spiritual use to the world 
since Christ's coming. In Christ alone will 
Israel live again and he a blessing to the 
world.'' 

The "final and only possible solution" is 
postponed, it will be observed, to a somewhat 
indefinite date, and, leaving Mr Baron on his 



10 THE PROBLEM AND SOME SOLUTIONS [chap. 



watch-tower, we turn for counsel to Mr Arnold 
White. It was his lofty purpose, he tells us, 
in publishing " The Modern Jew," ^ " to make 
the people of England think." They are to 
think to the following effect : — 

" England," he writes, " is in this dilemma : 
she is either compelled to abandon her secular 
practice of complacent acceptance of every 
human being choosing to settle on these shores, 
or to face the certainty of the Jews becoming 
stronger, richer, and vastly more numerous ; 
with the corresponding certainty of the Press 
being captured as it has been captured on the 
Continent, and the national life stifled by the 
substitution of material aims for those which, 
however faultily, have formed the unselfish and 
imperial objects of the Englishmen who have 
made the Empire. . . . The conclusion, there- 
fore, seems obvious, that either the situation 
must be dealt with, i.e, by Europe as a whole, 
or an alarming outbreak against the race, the 
members of which are always in exile and 
strangers in the land of their adoption, will 
result, and the clock of civilisation will thus 
be thrown back for a hundred years. . . . The 
Jewish question, however difficult, is not 
insoluble." 

Here, again, a solution is held possible, and 
at a date not quite as remote as that selected 
by Mr Baron. But Mr White reaches his 
conclusion through a series of premisses which 
cannot be accepted without demur. The 
contingencies which he states as certainties, by 
' Heineman & Co., 1899. 



I] ENGLAND'S "DILEMMA" 11 

a common rhetorical device, are, if not 
fallacious, at least open to argument. Will 
Jews become " stronger, richer, and vastly 
more numerous " ? Have they ** captured the 
Press on the Continent " ? Is the British 
Press likely to be captured ? Do Jews " stifle 
national life" by introducing "material aims"? 
And were "the Englishmen who have made 
the Empire " moved by " unselfish and imperial 
objects " ? Mr White himself, in another jour- 
nalistic capacity, has something different to say 
at this point. And all these points, it is to 
be noted, when it comes to an attack on the 
Jews, are chosen as unassailable first truths. 

Next, we pass from the special pleader to 
a book vouched for by the Toynbee Hall 
mark. ]VIr James Bryce, who contributes 
the preface to " The Jew in London," ^ states 
that one of its authors, " though fair and even 
friendly, has no special personal ground of 
sympathy with the Jewish race or religion," 
and that the other, though a Jew, is " sufficiently 
detached and independent to perceive the 
defects of his nation [race ?], and sufficiently 
candid to admit these defects." And the 

^ " The Jew in London : A Study of Racial Character and 
Present-day Conditions. Being two essays prepared for the 
Toynbee trustees by C. Russell, B.A., and H. S. Lewis, M.A., 
with an Introduction by Canon Barnett, and a Preface by the 
Right Hon. James Bryce, M.P. With a new Map by Geo. E. 
Arkell." Fisher Unwin, 1900. 



12 THE PROBLEM AND SOME SOLUTIONS [chap. 



claim to impartiality, which Mr Bryce advances 
for the volume, is repeated by Canon Barnett, 
who states in his introduction that "the object 
of these essays is to assist their readers to a 
right answer, and therefore to a right policy." 
The reader may pray with Mr Baron, or he 
may curse with Mr White ; to what emotional 
or intellectual exercise, we wonder, do the 
Toynbee essayists invite him, in the solution 
of the Jewish question and the discovery of 
the " right answer." 

"The A¥hitechapel problem," declares Mr 
Russell, " turns out to be European in scope, 
and it is not much less bewildering in its inner 
complexity than in the immense range over 
which it spreads itself. Besides being part 
of a larger question, it contains a multitude 
of smaller ones, and opens up a field of inquiry 
in which racial, industrial, and religious 
questions are bound up with one another and 
refuse to be dissociated." 

After this exordium, which rather takes away 
the breath, his conclusion reads a trifle tamely: 

" There is only the choice of going forward 
or backward. . . . Reform and Zionism are 
the broad alternatives. ... It is easy to 
understand the antipathy which the great 
body of Jews naturally feel towards the 
prospect of assimilation. They have too much 
pride of race to relish the idea of complete 
absorption. But (at least from the Gentile 
standpoint) it is no less hard to see the 



I.] 



EXPULSION OR ABSORPTION 13 



justification than the practicabiUty of a pohcy 
of continued separatism. There is doubtless 
a loss in every departure from historic 
traditions ; but if these traditions have out- 
lived their value and purpose, or even acquired 
a mischievous tendency, the loss may be more 
than counterbalanced. It is pitiful also, no 
doubt, to witness the decay of a religion which 
has gone far in many lives to transfigure, or 
at least to render tolerable, the harsh conditions 
of slum life. . . . On the whole, if the gains 
and losses of assimilation could be reckoned 
against one another, there seems little doubt 
on which side the balance would be found." 

Starting from different points, and aiming 
at different goals, our authors accordingly 
agree that the Jewish question is international, 
to be solved by a concert of the Powers acting 
on the watchword of " Aut disce aut discede ! " 
The Jews are to disappear — by religious con- 
version, according to Mr Baron ; by legislative 
exclusion, according to Mr White ; by social 
assimilation, according to Mr Russell. But go 
they must, if England is to be saved. 



CHAPTER II 



ZIONISM AS A SOLUTION 

It is remarkable that a section of the Jews 
has reached the same conclusion by a different 
road. In the eyes of non-Jewish writers, whom 
we need not pursue through the viler alleys 
of anti-Semitism, the "problem" is that the 
Jews are at once too rich and too poor. In 
Jewish eyes, the problem is how to escape 
persecution. It is just twenty years ago, in 
September 1882, that an anonymous pamphlet 
(by Dr Leon Pinsker), since translated into 
English under the title of " Self-Emancipation," 
as No. 1 of the " Jewish National Series," laid 
down as a first principle of faith and practice : — 

"The international Jewish question must 
undergo a national solution. Our national 
regeneration can take place, of course, only 
very slowly. But we must take the first step, 
and our successors will have to follow. . . . 
The national regeneration of the Jews must 
be initiated by a congress of Jewish notables. 
. . . As matters stand, the financial execution 
of the undertaking does not present unsur- 
mountable difficulties." 

14 



CHAP, ii ] PINSKER AND HERZL 



15 



Thus the disappearance of the Jews was urged 
on themselves by themselves. To the solutions 
of the " international problem " offered by Mr 
Baron, Mr White, and Mr Russell, we have now 
to add that of Dr Pinsker — the solution of 
Zionism, or the nationalisation of the Jews. 

The present leader of this movement, and 
President of the Zionist Congress, is Dr 
Theodor Herzl, whose monograph, "A Jewish 
State ; an Attempt at a Modern Solution of the 
Jewish Question," has likewise been translated 
(David Nutt, 1896, Is.), and has the further 
advantage of being fourteen years later than 
Dr Pinsker's. 

Dr Herzl was a journalist in Vienna at the 
time of the Lueger municipality. He is now 
the accepted leader of the movement known 
as Zionism ; and at the annual Zionist Congress 
this redoubtable Moses from the Press - club 
rekindles the prophetic fire which shone on 
the face of the Deliverer. His original 
manifesto proposed to found the Jewish State 
in Western Asia or South America. Since 
then he has selected Palestine, as being the 
ancient home of the Jews, and possessing a 
glamour to attract the ignorant victims of 
Continental hate. His notion apparently is 
that the Sultan of Turkey will sell the province 
to the Jews — Dr Pinsker shared this delusion 
— and that the European powers will guarantee 



16 ZIONISM AS A SOLUTION [chap. 



its integrity as a fifth-rate buffer State — the 
wildest notion, to our thinking, which an 
ambitious journaUst has ever based on a neglect 
of pohtical facts and an indifference to rehgious 
behef. For the Herzl variant of Zionism, 
though it successfully deludes a heterogeneous 
crowd of foreign enthusiasts, is an unfortunate 
compromise between two quite opposite ideas. 

The restoration of the Jews to the land of 
their old independence may occur in one of two 
ways. It may be by the concerted act of the 
Governments of the countries of their dispersion, 
devised as a measure of self-protection against 
the spread of the Jews ; or by the fulfilment ot 
prophecy when the Jewish mission is complete. 
The first is the creed of good anti - Semites, 
the second of orthodox Jews. The orthodox 
Jew recognises a divine purpose in his exile. He 
is where he is for some purpose. By his mere 
survival and patience he is serving some divine 
end. He is a witness and a priest, and he may 
not interrupt the mission of his race to save his 
own poor skin. But Dr Herzl's plan makes 
short work of the spiritual element in the new 
exodus of Jewry. He would force the hand of 
Providence. The restoration, instead of occur- 
ring as the appointed end of the dispersion, would 
be interpolated in the middle of it as a means of 
evading its obligations. This plan, which is a 
travesty of Judaism, is equally futile as state- 



II.] 



THE RESTORATION IDEA 



17 



craft. There is not the least disposition on 
the part of the great powers of Europe to see 
the wealth and talent of Israel pass into the 
hands of the Sultan, nor yet to see the Holy- 
Land invaded by a crowd of Jews, still less to 
complicate the Eastern question by planting 
another weak State in that troublesome ward 
of invalids. 

The unaccustomed meekness of the scheme is, 
perhaps, its most surprising feature. Isaiah said : 
** Gentiles shall come to thy light, and kings to 
the brightness of thy rising. Break forth into 
joy, sing together, ye waste places of Judah, for 
the Lord hath comforted his people. Say unto 
Jerusalem, thou shalt be built ; and to the temple, 
thy foundation shall be laid." On these passages, 
and passages like these, the Jews have based 
their faith in the Messiah, whether personal or 
impersonal, at whose coming the nations of 
Christendom will be eager to take hold of their 
skirts ; and the people which is permitted to look 
forward to so splendid a destiny as this, which 
keeps itself severely apart in order to be ready 
to fulfil it when the appointed time shall have 
arrived, is forgiven by all just men for the touch 
of racial arrogance inevitable, perhaps, to those 
who live in the light of such a mission. But 
now, contrast with Isaiah and his appeal to 
racial pride, the apologetic tone of Dr Herzl in 
defining the destiny of his race: 

3 



18 ZIONISM AS A SOLUTION [chap. 



" The departure of the Jews," he writes, in his 
introduction to the " Jewish State," " will involve 
no economic disturbances, no crises, no persecu- 
tions ; in fact, the countries they abandon will 
revive to a new period of prosperity. There will 
be an inner migration of Christian citizens into 
the positions evacuated by Jews. . . . The Jews 
will leave as honoured friends, and if some of 
them return, they will receive the same favourable 
welcome and treatment at the hands of civilised 
nations as is accorded to all foreign visitors. 
Their exodus will have no resemblance to a 
flight, for it will be a well-regulated expedition 
under control of public opinion." 

A flight, accordingly, which is no flight, an 
abandonment and an evacuation — this is the 
modern rendering of the Messianic hope ; 
instead of Gentiles coming to the light, Dr 
Herzl offers the pretty picture of Jews content, 
like foreign visitors, with a " favourable welcome 
and treatment." We have called this a travesty 
of Judaism. But it is worse than satire — it is 
treason. Dr Herzl and those who think with 
him are traitors to the history of the Jews, which 
they misread and misinterpret. They are them- 
selves part-authors of the anti-Semitism which 
they profess to slay. For how can the European 
countries which the Jews propose to abandon " 
justify their retention of the Jews ? and why 
should civil equality have been won by the 
strenuous exertion of the Jews, if the Jews them- 
selves are to be the first to "evacuate" their 



11] THE MILLENNIUM ANTICIPATED 19 



position, and to claim the bare courtesy of 
" foreign visitors " ? We recall, perforce, the 
debates in the House of Commons of 1833. 
Lord INIacaulay, speaking in committee on behalf 
of the removal of disabilities, said : 

" Another objection which has been made to 
this motion is that the Jews look forward to the 
coming of a great deliverer, to their return to 
Palestine, to the rebuilding of their temple, to 
the revival of their ancient worship, and that, 
therefore, they will always consider England, not 
their country, but merely as their place of exile. 
But surely, sir, it would be the grossest ignorance 
of human nature to imagine that the anticipation 
of an event which is to happen at some time 
altogether indefinite . . . can ever occupy the 
minds of men to such a degree as to make them 
regardless of what is near and present and certain. 
. . . Are we to exclude all millenarians from 
Parhament and office. . . . ? " 

Fourscore years, a strong man's lifetime, make 
a short instalment of the JNIillennium, but if Dr 
Herzl's plan for the political restoration of the 
Jews has to be taken into serious account, then 
INIacaulay was wrong, and his " grossly ignorant " 
opponents were right in their view of human 
nature. 

But the scheme is foredoomed to failure. Dr 
Herzl has traded — we know no better word — on 
the resources of prophecy. Zion is a magical 
name in the ears of the ignorant victims of 
Russian and Roumanian persecution ; and though 



20 ZIONISM AS A SOLUTION [chap. 



Dr Herzl was indifferent at fii-st whether he led 
them to Argentina or to Palestine, he quickly 
perceived the commercial value of keeping the 
name of the old firm on his prospectus. Not 
even Mr Zangwill, ardent Zionist though he is, 
can evade the logic of this conclusion. " Pales- 
tine, indeed, but an afterthought," he admits on 
page 395 of his " Dreamers of the Ghetto " : an 
aspiration of unsuspected strength, to be utilised 
— like all human forces — by the maker of 
history. States are the expression of souls; 
in any land the Jewish soul could express itself 
in characteristic institutions, would shake off 
the long oppression of the ages, and renew its 
youth in touch with the soil. Yet since there 
is this longing for Palestine, let us make 
capital of it — capital that will return its safe 
percentage." Was there ever a more cynical 
confession of the commercialisation of a spiritual 
idea ? And the promoters knew their public. 
Poor Jews, who would have preferred the 
fleshpots of Egypt to the unknown terrors of 
South America, jumped at the sound of 
Jerusalem. To die in Palestine is their 
ambition ; the restoration is their waking 
dream; and Dr Herzl, with ingenious 
effrontery, represented his scheme of evading 
the mission of the exiles, and their duty to 
the lands of their dispersion, as a fulfilment of 
the ancient prophecy. 



II.] 



COMPARATIVE FAILURE 



21 



The measure of success which he has achieved 
is that of the ofF-chance. "The Jews," as he 
himself wrote, " have dreamt this kingly dream 
all through the long nights of their history. 
* Next year in Jerusalem ' is their old phrase. 
Now comes the opportunity to prove that the 
dream may be converted into a hving reality "— 
and to the extent of the possibility of the ofF- 
chance Dr Herzl's backers support him. He 
might be right. The opportunity, stated with 
so much skill, might be the trumpet-call to 
Zion ; at least the ears of Ghetto Hebrews, 
bewildered with the cries of hate, might well 
be eager to accept another false prophet as the 
Redeemer. The mistake has been committed 
before, not once but many times, since the 
grave warning was uttered, " For they prophesy 
falsely unto you in My name ; I have not sent 
them, saith the Lord." Nor, indeed, is Dr 
Herzl's success commensurate at all with his 
anticipations in 1896. Then he wrote : " I 
imagine that Governments will, either volun- 
tarily or under pressure from the anti-Semites, 
pay certain attention to this scheme ; and they 
may perhaps actually receive it here and there 
with a sympathy which they also show to the 
Society of the Jews." This expectation remains 
unfulfilled. The Western Governments have 
shown not the least disposition to invite an 
outburst of anti-Semitism by acknowledging 



ZIONISM AS A SOLUTION 



[chap. 



their Jews as strangers ; and, as to the inter- 
views with the Sultan of Turkey which Dr 
Herzl has enjoyed, it is already fairly certain 
that his Majesty has been smiling in his sleeve. 
But the Congress has been founded, and it is 
addressed each year by "impassioned rhetori- 
cians," whose structure in the clouds is already 
beginning to reveal little signs of rifts and 
flaws. We may be permitted to quote the 
picturesque account of such a gathering from 
the reporter's pen of Mr Zangwill, who, as a 
friend of the movement, if called as a witness 
on the other side, will give evidence of supreme 
importance. He wi'ites : 

"As no two of the leaders are alike, so do 
the rank-and-file fail to resemble one another. 
Writers and journalists, poets and novelists and 
merchants, professors and men of professions — 
types that once sought to slough their Jewish 
skins and mimic, on Darwinian principles, the 
colours of the environment, but that now, with 
some tardy sense of futility or stir of pride, 
proclaim their brotherhood in Zion — they are 
come from many places ; from far lands and 
from near ; from uncouth, unknown villages of 
Bukowina and the Caucasus, and from the great 
European capitals ; thickest from the pales of 
persecution, in rare units from the free realms 
of England and America — a strange phantas- 
magoria of faces, — " 

and, it may fairly be added, a strange founda- 
tion of a State. Pole, Hungarian, Roumanian, 



II.] 



ENGLISH JEWS AND ZIONISM 



23 



Frenchman, Dutchman, German, Russian, 
Egyptian, Swede — how shall these be welded 
together into a single republic, pent closely 
between the desert and the sea? "As an 
attempt to realise the ideal of Judaism," wrote 
Mr Oswald John Simon in the Nineteenth 
Century, September 1898, *'the programme for- 
mulated at Basle presents the spectacle of the 
most contemptible, if not the most grotesque, 
species of idealism which was ever laid before 
the remnant of the descendants of a great 
nation." 

We need not discuss the financial aspect of 
this matter, which reposes in the hands of the 
Jewish Colonial Trust, with a Council over- 
whelmingly composed of foreign and Oriental 
names. Affiliated with the Central Committee 
is an English Zionist Federation, of which Sir 
Francis Montefiore is President, and which 
counts more than seventy branches in England 
and Ireland. But the great bulk of English 
Jewry has rigidly kept aloof. They, at least, 
do not subscribe to the objects of the Federa- 
tion, which are (1) the acquisition of a legally 
safeguarded home in Palestine for the Jewish 
people ; (2) the fostering of the National Idea 
in Israel. Or, rather, they do not confuse these 
two wholly different aims. Legal safeguards, 
dependent on the goodwill of a Mohammedan 
prince, form a miserable realisation of a national 



U ZIONISM AS A SOLUTION [chap.ii. 



idea hugged through centuries of oppression and 
glowing with fervid imagination. The mission 
of Israel in exile is the measure of a larger 
hope than the cleverness of Dr Herzl has 
compassed. 



CHAPTER III 



THE JEWISH QUESTION IN THE LIGHT OF 
JEWISH ETHICS AND HISTORY 

So far, then, we have seen that the existence of 
the Jewish question is admitted by Jews and 
non-Jews ahke, and that the postulate imphes 
the phenomenon of a sohdarity of Jewish in- 
terests, which may be described with Mr White 
as " aloofness," but which is practically satisfied 
by a dualism in the hfe of every responsible 
Jew. He takes his part in the business and 
pleasure of the land to which he belongs. But 
he takes a part likewise in the lot of his co- 
religionists all over the world. He has a double 
set of duties ; and we cannot but conceive that 
he acquires a double range of sensibilities to 
which he equally responds. The proof of this 
practical rehgion — for it amounts to nothing 
less — may be read between the lines of the 
"Jewish Year Book." Thus, in the hst of 
Jewish charities printed there, we find a con- 
joint committee of the Russo- Jewish Committee 
and the Jewish Board of Guardians, of which 

25 



26 JEWISH ETHICS AND HISTORY [chap. 



the object is "to promote the general welfare 
of Russian Jews who are the victims of religious 
persecution in their own country " ; and, again, 
in the list of representative institutions, we find 
an Anglo-Jew^ish Association, founded in 1871, 
and directed by the leaders of the community, 
the objects of which are defined as " (a) the 
protection of persecuted Jews ; (b) the education 
of Jewish children in Eastern countries." More- 
over, the Committee of Deputies of the British . 
Jews, which dates from 1760, co-operates with 
the Anglo- Jewish Association " in any action in 
which the intervention of the Foreign Office 
may be desirable " ; and it was engaged in 
1901-2, among other important matters, with the 
supervision of the Morocco Relief Fund, the 
position of Roumanian Jews, and the issue of a 
report on alien immigration. At several points, 
accordingly, the claims of Jewry beyond the 
seas have an open road to the sympathy of the 
Jews in this country. Just as the Lord Mayor 
of London may have to open a Fund for the 
relief of a British colony beyond the seas, so 
the Jewish community in this country responds 
to the calls of its kinsmen in distant parts of 
the world. How far precisely the Jew — the 
English Jew, let us say, whose liberty is 
absolutely untrammelled — finds his two sets of 
duties always and wholly compatible we cannot 
accurately say. It is conceivable, to take a 



Ill] THE JEWS AS IMPERIALISTS 27 

concrete instance, that he subscribes more 
heartily to an Anglo-Jewish Fund for the relief 
of his oppressed kinsmen in Roumania than to 
a Mansion House Fund for his starving fellow- 
subjects in India, and circumstances can be 
imagined in which his attitude towards Anglo- 
Russian politics would be complicated by his 
resentment at Russia's persecution of the Jews. 
But the point is that he accepts the double 
burden, and cheerfully discharges both dues, 
regarding each as an Imperial claim. For 
the modern Jew may turn away with a smile 
from an adversary like Mr Arnold White, who 
apprehends that the presence of Jews in England 
will stifle the national life "by the substitu- 
tion of material aims for those which, however 
faultily, have formed the unselfish and imperial 
objects of the Englishmen who have made 
the empire." The British Empire was made 
many centuries too late to teach the Jews 
unselfishness or Imperialism. Mr AVhite does 
not know his modern Jew. " For successive 
generations," he tells us, the Jews " are tied to 
alien communities of their own race and faith 
in other lands by closer bonds than any that 
unite them to the country of their adoption." 
The tail of this sentence has a sting which we 
believe to be unjust, even in reference to 
Zionists ; but surely the first part contradicts 
Mr White's own conception of a Jew. The 



28 JEWISH ETHICS AND HISTORY [chap. 



cui bono argument refutes it. What has the 
Enghsh Jew to gain by keeping up this imperial 
tie with members of his race in other lands? 
Or is this unselfish sense of responsibility to the 
claims of a common race and creed the expres- 
sion of the "material aims" which Mr White 
apprehends will corrupt the unselfish imperial 
Briton ? 

In the war which has recently been concluded, 
the Jews were fighting side by side with their 
British fellow-countrymen for the rights of the 
stranger in the Transvaal. One cannot but 
think that the quarrel came easier to them 
than to some others. They were fulfilling, not 
merely an obligation of citizenship, but a 
religious duty as well. Rarely since Old Testa- 
ment times have these duties been united so 
closely. In Numbers xv. 15 the Jews are told: 
" One ordinance shall be both for you of the 
congregation, and also for the stranger that 
sojourneth with you, an ordinance for ever in 
your generations : as ye are, so shall the stranger 
be before the Lord. One law and one manner 
shall be for you, and for the stranger that 
sojourneth with you." In Leviticus xxiv. 22 — 
" Ye shall have one manner of law, as well for 
the stranger, as for one of your own country : 
for I am the Lord your God" — the statute is 
put upon a religious foundation; while in 
Deuteronomy x. 19 — " Love ye therefore the 



ni.] POLITICAL PRINCIPLES 29 



stranger : for ye were strangers in the land of 
Egypt" — the precept of civil and religious 
equahty is based on the strongest appeal to 
historical tradition. 

The Whites and Russells, who are bewildered 
by the "inner complexity" and the immense 
range of the Jewish question, should go back 
to the origin of Israel and trace his gradual 
descent. There they might find, to their dis- 
comfiture, that the Jew who practises his faith, 
so far from threatening England with the poly- 
syllabic evils of the political economist's vocabu- 
lary, is trained in the principles for which alone 
the empire is worth preserving ; and that, rather 
than persuade the Jew to intermarry and aposta- 
tise, they should exert every effort to induce 
him by kindness — as in the past by hatred — to 
maintain the tenets of his religion, and to use 
them, after centuries of repression, for their 
original purposes of State. 

We have seen that four separate solutions 
have been proposed for the Jewish problem, 
with the one feature in common that they mend 
the Jews of Europe by ending them. A policy 
of international suppression has been wwked out 
in both camps. Mr Baron would convert the 
Jews, Mr Russell would absorb them, Mr White 
would exclude them, and Dr Herzl would lead 
them out. We believe that each of these four 
solutions is wrong. They err by their common 



30 JEWISH ETHICS AND HISTORY [chap. 



neglect of the basis of the Jewish question in 
Jewish ethics and history. Character is ethics 
modified by history; and no racial or national 
policy can succeed which works without refer- 
ence to character. If the Jew is an exile in the 
land of his birth, a stranger in the country of 
his allegiance, as the anti - Semites and the 
Zionists reiterate, the fault is not his, but theirs. 
It was Bismarck, we believe, who said, " Every 
country has the Jews it deserves." The Jew 
is largely what the Christian has made him. 
Before his God there are no strangers ; and, 
into whatever language of political or economic 
science this old religious maxim be translated, 
it is yet a maxim which should make us pause 
before we persecute the Jew for practising the 
principles of Moses. 

Thus we begin to pass from the heated con- 
troversies of those who would " solve " the 
Jewish question out of hand into the serener 
region of the ethics of Judaism, a treatise on 
which, by Professor Lazarus of Berlin, is before 
us in its American dress. Mr Arnold White 
assures us that the quality which he terms 
" aloofness " " is at the root of everji:hing to 
which the nations of Christendom can legiti- 
mately object"; and he bases that quality of 
the Jews on a combination of "the pride of 
race, the teachings of the Talmud, and the 
consciousness of consecration to the mission 



[.] THE ''CACHET' AND THE "CALAMITY " 31 



with which they have been entrusted." Mr 
White s argument in this passage is so curious 
that we venture to quote it at length. He 
divides the Jews of England "naturally into 
four classes " : — 

" First, there is the Jewish aristocracy, a type 
unrepresented in America or in Russia. Patri- 
cian Jews differ from their Christian peers 
mostly by more strenuous and uniform patriot- 
ism, by more systematic and larger benevolence. 
. . . Invitations to the great Jewish houses are 
eagerly sought; to be included in their circle 
of friends is in itself a cachet; exclusion or 
expulsion is a social calamity. There is one 
feature, however, in the society encountered in 
Jewish palaces — one never meets a Jew unless 
it be an aristocrat. The connection maintained 
between the Hebrew^ patrician and his co-reli- 
gionists of the bourgeoisie is either official or 
philanthropic." 

Thus our authority on Anglo-Jewish sociology 
in connection with the first-grade Jew. We do 
not wish to be squeamish about the tone that 
he adopts, but in his exaggerated deference to 
the Hebrew patricians in their palaces there is 
at least a touch of Uriah. Moreover, as to the 
contact between the Jewish upper and middle 
classes, we fail to see Mr A¥hite's point. The 
bourgeoisie of any religion rises in the social 
scale precisely by the same means. It is absurd 
to discuss such a matter as a question of race 
or creed. 



32 JEWISH ETHICS AND HISTORY [chap. 



" The second class into which the modem 
Jew naturally falls differs little from the 
patricians except in their resolute refusal to 
permit their daughters to intermarry with 
Englishmen. The pride of race, the teachings 
of the Talmud, and the consciousness of con- 
secration to the mission with which they have 
been entrusted, combine to maintain, in highly- 
educated religious Jews, the aloofness which is 
at the root of everything to which the nations 
of Christendom can legitimately object. To 
this class of Jews belongs the highly-educated 
and anglicised Hebrew, who has practically 
relinquished his faith without abandoning the 
racial characteristics of which I shall speak later 
on. . . . The whole of the class of which I am 
speaking are not only notoriously better . 
citizens than the average Englishman, but they 
are sedulous in the fulfilment of their duties to 
their poor co-religionists." 

Writing with no slight knowledge of the 
Jewish community in London, we confess that 
this description perplexes us. What is a " highly 
educated religious Jew . . . who has practically 
relinquished his faith"? How can Talmudic 
lore and missionary zeal operate in the mind of 
an apostate ? Why, if Mr White believes his 
own conclusion, as to the superior citizenship of 
the Jews, should he seek to destroy the means 
by which this class has been developed ? And 
who constitutes Mr White the apologist of 
Christendom? We omit his third and fourth 
classes, simply because he seems to think that 



III.] THE QUALITY OF "ALOOFNESS" 33 



the benevolent patrician and the highly-educated 
bourgeois " growed," like Topsy, in their palaces 
and homes. That all English Jews were once 
immigrants, and that the immigrants of to-day 
may be the aristocrats of to-morrow, dispensers 
of the " cachet " and of the " calamity " in Mr 
Arnold White's social scheme, is a sociological 
truism which escapes his attention. But taking 
the critic's "legitimate objection" in the form 
in which he defines it, and remembering 
Mr White's part in the work of the Alien 
Immigration Commission, we must examine 
this quality of " aloofness." There will be little 
difficulty in showing that the argument is 
rooted in ignorance, and grafted on an his- 
torical fallacy. 

We fail to find this " aloofness " in the origins 
of Israel ; and, if the quality is acquired, it is 
worth while to ask why and when. Judaism, 
ancient and modern, is a system with the seeds 
of universalism. This is the first point to note. 
The system is kept up through the Pentateuch, 
the Prophets, and the Talmud with unremitting 
force. We have quoted part of the evidence for 
the civil and rehgious equality of the stranger 
in the Mosaic code. There was no " aloofness " 
in that conception. Not even privileges of blood 
were efficacious against the golden rule : " And 
if a stranger shall sojourn among you, and will 
keep the passover unto the Lord ; according to 

c 



§4 JEWISH ETHICS AND HISTORY [chap. 



the ordinance of the passover, and according to 
the manner thereof, so shall he do : ye shall have 
one ordinance, both for the stranger, and for him 
that was born in the land." Thus the author of 
the Book of Numbers, to which we have referred 
above. The idolatrous and immoral practices of 
the neighbours of the Jews dictated a foreign 
policy of the protectionist type ; but, as Renan 
remarks, the idea of the Jewish religion "is 
universal to the last degree " ; and Professor 
Lazarus acutely adds, " Israel had to be par- 
ticularistic in order to formulate and hold up 
the universal ideal." 

Even in his joys he shared alike. " Thou 
shalt rejoice," says the author of Deuteronomy, 
"in every good thing which the Lord thy 
God hath given unto thee . . . thou, and the 
Levite, and the stranger that is among you." 
In the reconstruction of the fallen fortunes of 
Israel in the prophetical writings, this idea was 
more strongly insisted on. Jeremiah was or- 
dained " a prophet unto the nations " ; and the 
new covenant was built, not merely on a 
national basis, but in the inward parts and in 
the heart, thus founding the ethical sanction 
on the common nature of man. God's house, 
said the second Isaiah, addressing the sons of 
the stranger, " shall be called an house of prayer 
for all people"; and the non-Jew was not to 
say, " The Lord hath utterly separated me from 



III.] HEBREW WELTPOLITIK 



35 



His people." For " from one new moon to 
another, and from one Sabbath to another, 
shall all flesh come to worship before Me, 
saith the Lord." Passages like these were 
taken up by the Rabbis of the Talmud to 
prove that a man's ideal worth, according to 
Jewish ethics, is independent of race or creed; 
that Israel's election is not confined to in- 
heritors of Hebrew blood ; that " religious 
observances, the Temple, the sacrificial service, 
are not indispensable conditions. . . . Moral 
purity and a loving heart are the only require- 
ments," As Professor Lazarus quotes from 
the " Megillah," " Whoever rejects idolatry is 
called Yehudi " {ix. Jew). In moral ques- 
tions," says another passage, " the Jew and the 
non-Jew stand under the same law." And if, 
to revert to the Prophets, a single example be 
asked of the application of the universal rule, 
take Ezekiel's scheme for the distribution of 
land in the future Jewish State, which reflects 
a condition of civilisation unique in ancient 
history : — 

"And it shall come to pass, that ye shall 
divide it by lot for an inheritance unto you, 
and to the strangers that sojourn among you, 
which shall beget children among you : and 
they shall be unto you as born in the country 
among the children of Israel ; they shall have 
inheritance with you among the tribes of Israel. 
And it shall come to pass, that in what tribe the 



36 JEWISH ETHICS AND HISTORY [chap. 



stranger sojourneth, there shall ye give him 
his inheritance, saith the Lord God." (Ezekiel 
xlvii. 22, 23.) 

The Jews, we must remember, were in the 
majority, and could have imposed restrictions 
on property which even modern standards 
might conceivably condone. But the Jewish 
codes, as DoUinger notes, " were more favour- 
able to strangers than those of any other 
people." Professor Lazarus adds, Whenever 
the law makes provision for the poor " — and 
the Jewish poor law, from Moses to the 
London Board of Guardians, is supreme of its 
kind — "it includes the stranger." 

I 

So much in this place, though the theme 
might well be amplified, on the allegation of 
Jewish "aloofness" — an allegation which be- 
trays complete ignorance of the elementary 
principles of Judaism. The Jew who lives 
up to his own principles, the Jew who is per- 
mitted to be free, is not in any sense likely 
to corrupt the "unselfish and imperial Briton." 
On the contrary, his ethical code, which he 
asks leave to practise, is based on those 
virtues. Unselfishness and imperialism are its 
corner-stones, and upon them is erected that 



III.] 



ISRAEL IN EXILE 



37 



structure of civic excellence to which Mr Arnold 
White pays such ready homage. But Israel, 
the lawgiver to ideal commonwealths, ceased at 
an early age to be a polity ; and we pass at this 
point to the historical aspect of the race, and to 
the development of its character and the modi- 
fication of its ideals under the stress of exile and 
persecution. The Jews were never in doubt as 
to their abstract duty towards the land that 
entertained them. Allegiance might prove 
difficult in practice, but Jeremiah had clearly 
provided for the contingency of dispersion ; and 
his precepts have a binding force. 

" Thus saith the Lord of hosts, the God of 
Israel, unto all that are carried away captives, 
whom I have caused to be carried away from 
Jerusalem unto Babylon; build ye houses, and 
dwell in them : and plant gardens, and eat the 
fruit of them ; take ye wives, and beget sons and 
daughters; and take wives for your sons, and 
give your daughters to husbands, that they may 
bear sons and daughters ; that ye may be in- 
creased there, and not diminished. And seek 
the peace of the city whither I have caused 
you to be carried away captives, and pray unto 
the I^ord for it; for in the peace thereof shall 
ye have peace." (Jeremiah xxix. 4-7). 

In other words, Israel in exile was to identify 
himself with the country where he made his 
home and founded his family; and he might 
well have expected that his own humane atti- 



38 JEWISH ETHICS AND HISTORY [chap. 



tude towards strangers would be reflected on 
himself as a stranger. The teachers of national 
hospitality, though debarred by destiny from its 
exercise, might hope to enjoy its reciprocal 
benefit. We bring no reproach against "the 
nations of Christendom" for whom Mr White 
claims the merit of a legitimate objection to 
the " aloofness " of the Jews ; but surely the 
fault of Israel is to be condoned if disillusion 
and disappointment have sharpened his self-pro- 
tecting faculties, and engendered those traits of 
obsequiousness, self-seeking, and want of patriot- 
ism which are now laid to his charge as natural, 
not acquired characteristics. The habits may 
have become a second nature ; but Israel re- 
covers so quickly under kindly treatment that 
one should hesitate to say that his nature is 
permanently warped. 

We are considering how the nation, whose 
Lawgiver and Prophets contemplated an in- 
dependent State, has emerged from a long 
period of suppression. We shall not omit the 
defects that have been engendered ; the most that 
we shall propose in that direction is to review 
them in the perspective of their causes. But 
before we enumerate Israel's faults, we may 
obey the teaching of the parable and look 
first for the beauties of the ghetto. The 
Jews did not choose to live there : if experience 
of its rigours has embittered them to some 



III.] 



SUFFERING AND SONG 



39 



extent ; if they have deteriorated a httle from 
the standard of their own prophetic writings, 
we should rather be surprised that the Jew 
who emerges from the ghetto after many 
generations preserves so much of the excellence 
of the days before religious persecution, and 
that, if some evil characteristics have been 
acquired, there are also further good and fair 
ones to be accounted to his credit. 

In all the passive virtues, at least, and in 
some of the active, he has passed triumphantly 
through the fire. He has learnt a thousand 
times over the hard lesson of Meribah. Thrown 
back against his will on himself, without the 
stimulus of friction, he has turned with an 
increased sense of rest to the duties of family 
life, irradiated in all its parts, even to the 
scouring of a dish, with the light of personal 
service. Music has been for the Jew a 
peculiar comfort and resource, and in that 
art, as on the stage, the world is the richer 
for Hebrew talent. Often, too, he has been 
" cradled into poetry by wrong " ; for up and 
down the pages of Jewish history the names 
occur of singers who, like Heine, a Jewish 
prince of minstrelsy, have turned their suffering 
to song. The Talmud is a great work, an 
unplumbed sea of many treasures ; but its 
contents by no means exhaust, as seems to be 
popularly supposed, the contribution of Israel 



40 JEWISH ETHICS AND HISTORY [chap. 



to literature. Above the crowd of poets and 
poetasters who made the literary glory of Spain 
rises the name of Jehudah Halevi, of whom 
Graetz has justly said: " If ever Spain could 
be brought to lay aside its prejudices, and to 
desist from estimating its great men of history 
by the standard of the Church, Jehudah Halevi 
would occupy a place of honour in its 
Pantheon." 

Seven centuries stretch between Halevi and 
Heine, but we mention them together because 
the German Jew in Paris was himself so keen 
an admirer of the Spanish Jew in long-ago 
Castile. 

Ah ! he was the greatest poet, 

Torch and starlight to his age, 

Beacon light to his people ; 

Such a mighty and a wondrous 

Pillar of poetic fire 

Led the caravan of sorrow 

Of his people Israel 

Thro' the desert of their exile." 

Thus Heine of Halevi, and the race to which 
both poets belonged, by sympathy as well as 
blood, might well do more to popularise the 
great Hebrew melodies of the Middle Ages. 
It is the language difficulty which is supreme, 
and it recurs again, centuries later (for the 
genius of the race is immortal) in another branch 
of literature — racy, vernacular, and peculiarly 
Jewish — which has sprung up like a flower 



III.] 



FLOWERS OF THE GHETTO 



41 



in the walls of modern European ghettoes. 
Wit and melancholy, self-ridicule and self-pity, 
and withal the unconscious universal element 
of poetry which the sweet singer " bequeathed 
to his people — all these are found in the pages 
of " The History of Yiddish Literature in the 
Nineteenth Century," compiled by Professor 
Leo Wiener, of Harvard, himself a type of 
Hebrew elasticity, having risen from hawking 
oranges in the streets to holding a chair at 
the university. Here is a unique testimonial 
to the resources of Israel in exile. Here are 
the undesirable aliens of the Bill which economic 
alarmists are anxious to force on the Govern- 
ment, composing literary monuments in a 
language entirely their own, a speech-mixture 
or jargon which no one knows how to spell. 
We can only give one example from Professor 
Wiener's " chrestomathy " — some stanzas from 
The Rejoicing of the Law," which show that 
the Hquid voices which Ezra first trained for 
his choirs are still raised in praise and prayer to 
the God of Zion and the wilderness : — 

" Zweitausend Jahi', a Kleinigkeit zu sagen ! 
Zweitausencl Jahr gemattert, geschlagen ! 
Siebeu iin' siebezig finstere Dores 
Gestoppt mit Zores, gefullt mit Gseeres ! 
As ich wollt' iiehmen derzaelilen jede Gseere, 
Wollt' heiint nit gewe'n Ssimchas-Tore ! 
Nor das darf ich gar nit, es is sehr gut 
Bei Jedem eingeschrieben in sein March, in sein Bhit. 



42 JEWISH ETHICS AND HISTORY [chap. 



Mir haben All's ausgehalten, All's aweggegeben, 
Unser Geld, imser Kowed, unser Gesund, un' Leben, 
Wie a Mai Chane ilire Kinder, die sieben — 
Far die heilige Tore, auf Parmet geschrieben. 

" Un' itzt ? Is' schon besser ? Last man uns zufrieden ? 
Hat man schon a Mai derkennt, as mir Jiiden 
Senen auch Menschen aso wie die Andem ? 
Wellen mir nit mehr in der Welt arumwandern ? 
Wet man sich auf uns mehr nit beklagen ? 
Das weiss ich nit, das kann ich euch nit sagen, 
Eins weiss ich, es lebt noch der alter Gott oben, 
Die alte Tore unten, un' der alter Glauben ; 
Drum sorgt nit un' hofft auf Gott dem lieben 
Un' auf die heilige Tore, auf Parmet geschrieben." 

Dr Wiener's prose version of these stanzas 
runs as follows : — 

" Two thousand years, no small matter that ! 
Two thousand years of torture and vexation ! 
Seventy - seven gloomy generations surfeited 
with sorrows, filled with misfortunes ! Were 
I to begin to tell all the persecutions, we should 
not have the Rejoicing of the Law to-day ; but 
I need not do that, it is too well written in 
each man's marrow, in his blood. We have 
suffered all, given away all — our money, our 
honour, our health, our lives, as Hannah once 
her seven children — for the holy Law written 
upon parchment. 

" And now ? Is it better ? Do they leave 
us in peace ? Have they come to recognise 
that we Jews are also men like all others? 
Shall we no longer wander about in the world ? 
Will they no longer complain of us? That 
I do not know, that I cannot tell you. Thus 
much I know; there still lives the old God 



Ill] FLOWERS OF THE GHETTO 43 

above, the old Law below, and the old faith ; 
therefore do not worry, and hope in the kind 
Lord and in the holy Law written upon parch- 
ment." ^ 

From Halevi to the ghetto poets of to-day 
Hebrew has been the mother tongue of Israel, 
and its use is perhaps responsible for the neglect 
of Jewish men of letters. But many of them 
have written in the languages of the countries 
where they happened to reside. Miss Emma 
Lazarus, INIrs Henry Lucas, Miss Nina Davis, 
and the late Amy Levy, are among recent 
writers of Jewish race who have enriched 
English literature with poetry of no slight 
merit. And it would be hard, in modern 
patriotic song, to find genuine patriotism and 
poetic feeling better combined than in the 
verses entitled " The Jewish Soldier," which 
Mrs Lucas pubUshed in the dark time of the 
recent war : — 

" Mother England, Mother England, 'mid the thousands 
Far beyond the sea to-day. 
Doing battle for thy honour, for thy glory, 
Is there place for us, a little band of brothers ? 
England, say ! 



^ Except for the occasional pure or corrupt Hebraisms 
(Dores, Gseere, Ssimchas-Tore), the language in these verses, 
it will be seen, is quite as near to the German of Hanover or 
Berlin as is the dialect of Silesia, for example, as reproduced 
by Gerhart Hauptmann in his plays. The despised jargon is 
a literary languiige. 



JEWISH ETHICS AND HISTORY [ohap. hi. 



' Thou hast given us home and freedom, Mother England, 

Thou hast let us live again, 
Free and fearless, 'midst thy free and fearless children, 
Sharing with them, as one people, grief and gladness, 

Joy and pain. 

* Now we Jews, we English Jews, Mother England, 

Ask another boon of thee : 
Let us share with them the danger and the glory ; 
Where thy best and bravest lead, there let us follow, 

O'er the sea ! 

' For the Jew has heart and hand, Mother England, 

And they both are thine to-day — 
Thine for life and thine for death, yea, thine for ever ! 
Wilt thou take them as we give them, freely, gladly ? 
England, say ! " 



CHAPTER IV 



PRESENT CONDITIONS 

The verses quoted from Mrs Henry Lucas at 
the close of the last chapter supply us with a 
fresh starting-point in our examination of the 
Jewish question. They state the reciprocal side 
of the Jewish question : 

" Wilt thou take them as we give them, freely, gladly? 
England, say ! " 

It is the tragedy of Israel that the inhospitality 
of the nations has been accounted to him for 
a sin, and that he who knows the heart of a 
stranger should be charged with the crime of 
exclusiveness. Liberty, equality, fraternity — 
this cry is the breath of Jewish life. The 
ghetto walls were built round them, and the 
Jews pushed them down; painfully, slowly, 
brick by brick, mulcted of a blood-sacrifice at 
every stage of their labours, the .Jews destroyed 
the ghetto which their Christian hosts had 

45 



46 



PRESENT CONDITIONS 



[chap. 



built round them. This is the historical fact; 
and is it strange if the Jews should find it 
hard to forgive the attitude of anti-Semites, 
who speak as if the ghettoes had been raised 
by Jewish hands and pulled down by the 
force of Christian principles? Here, at least 
in our opinion, is the whole miserable fallacy 
on which the fabric of anti-Semitism is erected. 
The Jews are charged with aloofness " and 
exclusiveness, with forming a state within a 
state, when it is they who teach the doctrines 
of liberty and hospitality to the followers of 
Christ and His disciples. Take their story 
in England, for example. The English are 
Christians living in a free country; but neither 
the Christian nor the liberal idea availed to 
remove the religious disability which oppressed 
our Jewish fellow-countrymen through a third 
of Queen Victoria's reign. If we enjoy to-day 
the high blessing of religious equality, if the 
" Tros Tyriusve mihi nuUo discrimine agetur " 
has become an accepted principle of British 
public life, if England alone almost among 
the nations has held up the standard of liberty 
during the last generation, it is partly to the 
Jews that she owes it — to men like Moses 
Montefiore, David Salomons, and Lionel Roths- 
child — who, at considerable personal sacrifice, 
and not for personal aggrandisement, thrust the 
standard of liberty into the reluctant hands of 



tv] THE MARK OF THE GHETTO 47 



British Conservatives, and inspired them with 
the all-embracing ideal of civic rights for which 
they fought in South Africa. 

" The ghetto," says the writer in the new 
Encyclopoedia Britannica, "which had been 
designed as a sort of quarantine to safeguard 
Christendom against the Jewish heresy, had 
in fact proved a storage chamber for a portion 
of the pohtical and social forces which were 
destined to sweep away the last traces of 
feudahsm from central Europe." 

This is the historical view, and it contains 
a deep lesson for the future. Russia, Roumania, 
and other countries are far more backward in 
their appreciation of the blessings of liberty 
than was England twoscore years ago. First 
one, then another of these countries sets the 
tide of immigration flowing westwards. The 
Jewish question, like the British Empire, cannot 
be controlled by l^ittle Englanders. Those who 
attempt to measure it by an exclusively English 
standard fall into the hopeless confusion of a 
critic like Mr Arnold White. First, they 
forget that every English Jew descends from 
an alien immigrant. They write in the most 
glowing terms of the superior civic virtue of 
the English Jew near the top of the scale, 
and of the contribution which he makes to 
the strength of our body pohtic ; and then 
they demand that a Royal Commission shall 



48 



PRESENT CONDITIONS [chap. 



be appointed to arrest the immigration of 
"aliens." Speaking with a sense of moral 
obligation, we object to this course on two 
grounds : First, it repeats the mediaeval crime 
of penning the Jews into ghettoes, and then 
jeering at their ghetto-bred characteristics — 
laying the badge of suffering upon them, and 
then objecting to the mark it leaves behind;^ 
and secondly, this exclusive policy is unfair to 
English Jews, and is likely, as Dr Herzl has 
pointed out, not merely in his evidence before 
the Commission, to drive them to seek in a 
new State that freedom to be free, which is 
the most sacred tradition of Jewish history 
and ethics. The Zionists see in this agitation 
propaganda for their desperate cause. If 
economic conditions tend to anti-Semitism in 
England, where at last the Jews had won — 
and nobly won — the right not to be "aloof," 
verily, Israel must abandon the mission of his 
exile. But the Little Englander attempt to 
solve the Jewish question in relation to this 
country alone has a last and a fatal defect. 
No conceivable legislation will prevent the 
infiltration of foreigners into this country. 
Our island position forbids it. To the economic 
alarmists who urge an Act of Exclusion, we 

^ " The aloofness, wliich is at the root of everything to which 
the nations of Christendom can legitimately object." — Arnold 
White, " The Modern Jew," p. 6. 



IV.] ALIEN IMMIGRATION 



49 



reply, " Produce your Bill." In this island of 
many ports, and of constant passenger traffic, 
such a law would be so expensive and so 
cumbersome as to defeat its own ends. We 
may not comment on the evidence which 
the Commission now sitting has already heard ; 
but we may shrewdly surmise that, when it 
comes to issue its Report, the majority at least 
will be content to recommend, as they reasonably 
may, a more stringent enforcement of the 
existing bye-law in Stepney, an amendment, 
perhaps, of the Housing legislation, possibly 
even a restriction for the more effective stoppage 
of diseased persons at the Port of London, but 
no Canute-like attempt to arrest the motion 
of the tide, which flows and ebbs, east and 
west, leaving on British shores that small deposit 
of aliens, by which our civic life is ultimately 
enriched. Putting the question at its lowest, 
there is no legislative barrier which that tide 
would not overflow. 

To the student of history it is clear that what 
the Jews have done in England they have still 
to do in other countries now. To the Jews 
themselves, we imagine, this obligation is a 
religious trust; it is a part of the divinely 
appointed mission which they are fulfilling in 
exile. For non-Jews, who miss the religious 
sanction, the political and historical sense must 
take its place. A policy of retreat from that 

P 



50 



PRESENT CONDITIONS [chap. 



duty — the policy of Dr Herzl and the neo- 
Zionists — is a pohey of cowardice and despair. 
This seems to us, on the evidence of the facts, 
the reply of history to Zionism. When the 
religious motive is superadded, we can conceive 
no more complete reply to prophets of Dr 
Herzl's type, who counsel a surrender to 
illiberalism ; " for they prophesy falsely unto 
you in My name ; I have not sent them, saith 
the Lord." If ever the purpose of history was 
written in letters that shine, it is written in 
the debt of England to the Jews, and in the 
obligation it entails on Jewish residents towards 
the land of their adoption. 

We would not be accused of fatalism, much 
less of callousness or indifference, in respect to 
the sufferings of Jewish communities in Eastern 
Europe. We disbelieve in heroic measures of 
despair, such as the several solutions that we 
have examined, but we thoroughly believe that 
some good may be effected by bringing influ- 
ence to bear on the authority concerned, whether 
the Emperor Nicholas or King Charles, or the 
advisers of those monarchs. The Jewish com- 
munity in England has not been idle in this 
respect. Taking the Roumanian problem, for 
example, a sheaf of pamphlets lies before us. 
Already, in 1872, Mr Israel Davis compiled for 
the Anglo- Jewish Association a " short state- 
ment " of the recent history and the then present 



IV.] ROUMANIAN JEWS : 1872-1902 51 



situation of the "Jews in Roumania." We 
quote a few sentences from this indictment of 
thirty years ago : — 

"By various laws, decisions, and regulations 
(often in defiance of the constitution, as well as 
of the already violated convention) Jews were, 
by the year 1870, excluded from acquiring real 
property (even houses in towns), from the 
Roumanian bar, from rank in the army, educa- 
tional appointments, medical posts, and the 
power to sell medicines. The area of employ- 
ments open to them is now still more circum- 
scribed. ... In 1866 the era of violence began 
with the destruction of the synagogue at Bucha- 
rest by a mob. ... In 1867 the Jews were 
violently and illegally arrested, and driven in 
herds to prison on the charge of vagrancy. . . . 
In 1869 the expulsion of the Jews from the 
rural districts (an idea conceived nineteen years 
before) was ruthlessly carried out. . . . Seven 
Powers — England, France, Austria, Germany, 
Italy, Russia, Turkey — have implicitly promised 
liberty and security to the Jews of Roumania. 
. . . And every one of the seven nations which 
joined in the Convention is bound to see that 
its promises be kept." 

In 1879, when the Treaty of Berlin (1878) had 
been added to the Paris Convention of 1858, 
Dr Bluntschli, Privy Councillor, and Professor 
at the University of Heidelberg, published under 
the auspices of the Alliance Israelite, a " coun- 
sel's opinion" in the form of a pamphlet now 
before us, on " L'Etat Roumain et la Situation 



52 



PRESENT CONDITIONS 



[chap. 



legale des Juifs en Roumanie." In his preface 
to this exposition of the international law, the 
learned jurist declared : — 

" L'histoire du developpement general du droit 
europeen m'a convaincu depuis longtemps, et 
I'etude des traites et des lois concernant la 
Roumanie ma conferme dans cette convic- 
tion, que I'egalite reclamee ne saurait etre 
legitimement refusee, si la Roumanie veut 
etre entierement reconnue comme etat civilise 
europeen." 

In 1885 Mr David F. Schloss pubUshed, 
through Mr Nutt, in the Strand, " A Detailed 
Account, compiled from recent official and 
other authentic information," of " The Persecu- 
tion of the Jews in Roumania." In this penny 
leaflet Mr Schloss starts from the unassailable 
proposition that the disabilities of the Jews in 
Roumania constituted (and constitute) ** a direct 
defiance of both the letter and the spirit of the 
Treaty of Berlin ; and that the English Govern- 
ment possesses, if it chooses to exercise it, the 
fullest right to interfere, by protest or otherwise, 
for their removal." The legal point is this : 
Article 7 of the Roumanian Constitution (even 
as amended by the Roumanian Assembly in 
1879) did not, and does not, comply with the 
requirements of the Signatory Powers, as ex- 
pressed in Articles 43 and 44 of the Treaty of 
Berlin. The appeal to common humanity was 



IV.] AN APPEAL TO THE FOREIGN OFFICE 53 



stated by INIr D. F. Schloss in the following 
terms : — 

" To sum up the whole ease, we may say 
briefly this : that the Roumanians treat the 
Jewish subjects of Roumania as outlaws, entitled 
to none of the rights, civil or political, of citizens ; 
that the Roumanians have, by forbidding the^ 
Jews to engage in nearly every trade and pro- 
fession, and by imposing the most vexatious 
restrictions upon the exercise by Jews of the 
few insignificant industries still left open to 
them, made it impossible for them to earn a / 
Hvelihood ; have in very many places expelled 
the Jewish inhabitants from their homes ; have, 
by incessant acts of petty persecution, made the 
life of the Roumanian Jew a burden to him ; 
and have done everything in their power to 
drive the Jews out of the country. ... If the 
nations of Western Europe do not deem the 
wrongs and sufferings of oppressed humanity a 
sufficient ground for their interference, they may 
still, perhaps, be convinced that their own dignity 
is compromised when a condition imposed by 
themselves is violated openly and with im- 
punity." 

In 1893 My Arthur Cohen, K.C., then 
President of the Jewish Board of Deputies, 
and the late Right Hon. Sir JuHan Gold- 
smid, then President of the Anglo - Jewish 
Association, jointly signed a letter to Lord 
Rosebery at the Foreign Office, which concluded 
as follows : — 

"The Roumanian Government have hitherto 



54 



PRESENT CONDITIONS [chap. 



contrived, by specious promises and hollow 
assurances, and by an utterly illusory Naturalisa- 
tion Act, to evade the performance of the pro- 
visions of Article 44 of the Treaty of Berhn. . . . 
The Jews have waited with exemplary patience 
for their performance. Instead, however, of 
being endowed with the rights promised them, 
they have had fresh disabilities imposed upon 
them which have made their lives a burden. 
We venture to submit that the time has now 
arrived when Roumania should be required to 
fulfil the engagements which she contracted 
with the Great Powers. ^JVe cannot believe 
that Great Britain, as one of these Powers, is 
prepared to abandon the principle of Civil and 
Religious Liberty." 

Lord Rosebery, in reply, transmitted a copy 
of a report from her late Majesty's Minister at 
Bucharest, which affirmed the views of the 
Roumanian Government, well known to the 
petitioners, and described by them as evasive, 
hollow, specious, and illusory. 

All this is not ancient history. In 1901 
Messrs Macmillan published in French a work 
by M. Edmond Simeons, entitled " Les Juifs 
en Roumanie depuis le Traite de Berlin jusqu'a 
ce jour. Les Lois et leurs Consequences." It 
is a weighty arraignment of facts, incontrovert- 
ible in themselves, and temperately stated, dis- 
playing " la situation intolerable qui a ete faite 
aux Juifs roumains par ce meme traite qui 
devait pour toujours assurer leur bonheur." Less 



IV.] 



THE CULMINATING EPOCH 



55 



valuable, but not to be overlooked, is the 
pamphlet (dated February 1902) of M. Bernard 
Lazare, a French pubhcist, on " L'Oppression 
des Juifs dans I'Europe Orientale : Les Juifs 
en Roumanie." For to-day, in 1902, this burn- 
ing question of thirty years ago is once more 
ardently urged on the attention of the Seven 
Powers. Lord JNIeath has pleaded the cause in 
the Times, and Mr Dicey and INIr Montefiore 
in the Spectator; the Times correspondent in 
Vienna telegraphed on June 6 : — 

" The Jews, who constitute about four per cent, 
of the population, . . . are practically excluded 
from most of the opportunities of earning a 
livelihood enjoyed by the Christian population. 
. . . Independently of the Treaty of Berlin, it 
is on the ground of pure humanity, and in 
order that Roumania may not forfeit her good 
reputation, that the disabilities of the Jews 
must be abolished, whatever temporary draw- 
backs such a course may be alleged to entail, 
and however reluctant the reactionary and 
Chauvinist element may be to adopt one of 
the essential principles of modern government 
— namely, the equality of all citizens before the 
law." 

Finally, in June 1902, there was started in 
Great Britain the issue of The Roumanian 
Bulletin, as an irregular medium for the in- 
formation of the Press. This step was taken in 
consequence of the last and the worst of the 
restrictive laws in Roumania (INIarch 1902), 



PRESENT CONDITIONS 



[chap. 



which prohibited the employment of Jewish 
working-men in any trade or calling ; and quite 
recently an incisive pamphlet has been published 
by Messrs William Clowes & Sons, entitled 
Roumanian Finance : Facts and Figures for 
the Holders of Roumanian Bonds, which strikes 
at the moral conscience of Roumania through 
the more sensitive organ of her purse. Our 
last quotation in this record of a thirty years' 
war against false dealing and persecution shall 
be from Roumanian Finance : ^ 

" From whatever point of view things are 
considered, there is only one conclusion to be 
drawn : Roumania has exhausted her credit 
abroad, and yet a catastrophe is unavoidable if 
she does not call in outside assistance. This will 
undoubtedly be granted if the country gives 
sufficient guarantees that her policy will in 
future be more prudent, and her financial manage- 
ment more economical and honest. Guarantees 
will have to be given to this effect. The 
economic policy of the country will have to be 
put as much as possible beyond the reach of party 
interests, and instead of discouraging foreign 
enterprise and putting fetters on labour, the 
productiveness of the country will have to be 
increased. It is a difficult undertaking, to be 

^ A reply has since been published in the shape of another 
anonymous pamphlet, called Attacks on Roumanian Finance. 
In this reply, the " scathing and deprecatory criticism of the 
present Premier and Minister of Finance" is described with a 
show of reason, as, " to say the least, premature after a term 
of office of barely one year." 



IV.] THE POWER OF THE PURSE 57 



carried out only in the course of years, but it is 
by no means impossible, if the true patriots 
are only successful in restraining the national 
Chauvinism. In this respect the true interest of 
the country coincides with the interests of her 
foreign creditors and her political friends. . . . 
Should this hope not be realised, then the 
public in Western Europe will certainly refuse 
to lend Roumania any money. Capitalists will 
no longer allow themselves to be blinded by 
budget estimates and by artificial arrangements 
of revenue and expenditure. . . . Only when 
Roumania is successful in regaining, by her 
policy, the confidence of her creditors, and in 
bringing about a total change in the public 
opinion of W^estern Europe, can the country 
be saved from violent shocks, and the holders 
of Roumanian bonds be guarded against 
heavy losses." 

It is at this point, if diplomacy is powerless 
and humanity indifferent, that the Jews of 
Western Europe will find their pretext to 
interfere. 

Several conclusions ensue. First, Jewish 
suffering in the East is a real and a serious evil. 
If further evidence be sought, let the reader 
consult Sincerus on Roumania, or Professor 
Errera on "The Russian Jews" (D. Nutt, 1894), 
or Professor Mandelstamm's leaflet entitled 
Hoiv Jews Live: A Side-lig-ht on Alien Immigra- 
tion (Greenberg & Co., Chancery Lane). We 
need not elaborate that aspect. Secondly, it 
is important to note how persistent and un- 



58 



PRESENT CONDITIONS 



[chap. 



selfish have been the efforts of Western Jews 
to relieve the oppression of their co-religionists. 
There has been no attempt to shirk that duty, 
no Capua in English Jewry. But, thirdly, and 
more to the purpose of the argument main- 
tained in this essay, thoughtful Jews in Western 
Europe have recognised quite clearly that the 
one true basis of improvement must be an 
improvement from inside. There may have 
been spasmodic experiments at expatriation and 
resettlement ; despairing Zionists in places may 
have urged the remedy of flight. But the 
strenuousness, the consistency, the moral 
purpose have been throughout in the direction 
of a reform of Roumanian opinion. All that 
can be done to hasten that reform Western 
Jews are willing to do, at any sacrifice of time, 
trouble, or money. But the Roumanian Jews 
must remain in Roumania in order to help 
Roumania to become a civilised State. This 
is the mission of Israel in exile, the mission 
that British Israel has fulfilled. Here, accord- 
ingly, we discover the true solution of the 
Jewish question, as it presents itself to the 
minds of spiritual Jews, acquainted with their 
own past and with the lessons that it contains. 
This discovery justifies our long divagation to 
the East. For if patience under wrong, and 
a patient striving for the right, held the promise 
of no reward save patience itself, then Mr 



ly.] 



THE SOLUTION 



59 



Baron might convert them, or Mr White 
exclude them, or Dr Herzl lead them out. The 
faith that is in them would perish, the gleam 
that they follow would disappear. But make 
survival a duty, exalt character to the dignity 
of a trust, crown the hardships of exile with a 
missionary claim, and the willow-trees will break 
into rejoicing, and the waters of Babylon will be 
sweet. Time is on the side of this solution. It 
moves with the purpose of history. 



I 

We have tried faithfully to render the ideas 
of the most spiritually-minded Jews as to the 
meaning of their dispersion, and the mission 
which they are set to fulfil before the arrival of 
the Messiah. At the same time we have tried 
to show how the harsh experience of Israel in 
exile has affected his natural character ; and 
how, despite the ghettoes and gaberdines from 
which he has won release, he has yet enriched 
the world with morality and art. Again, we 
saw that the emancipated Jew is as good a 
citizen as his neighbour, and that nothing but 
neighbourly hate drives him into the arms of 
the Zionists. As to the attitude of the public 
mind towards this alien population in our 
midst, there is a striking discrepancy of 



60 



PRESENT CONDITIONS 



[chap. 



evidence. The views of Mr Russell and Mr 
White may be cited in parallel columns : — 



"The point which gives its 
chief novelty and interest to 
the experiment (of ' anghcis- 
ing ' the * alien immigrants ' ) 
is the complete absence of 
anti-Semitic feeling. This is 
one of the most striking fea- 
tures of the question as it 
presents itself in Whitechapel ; 
it is considerably truer of the 
British workman than even of 
the richer classes. In the 
higher levels of society there 
is still, no doubt, a certain 
amount of racial prejudice. . . . 
But in the East End there is 
hardly a trace of this ; against 
the Jew as a Jew there seems 
to be no sort of hostile feeling. 
The English Jew ... is sur- 
prisingly popular. And such 
hostility as does exist towards 
the foreign element is neither 
racial nor religious in character. ' ' 
— C. Kussell, "The Jew in 
London," pp. 41, 42. 

Here, then, plainly we have two divergent 
views, one of which assures us that the popu- 
larity of the Jew in Whitechapel prevents anti- 
Semitism in Mayfair, while the other maintains 
that the popularity of the Jew in JMayfair prevents 
anti-Semitism in Whitechapel. We may perhaps 
omit any further consideration of these mutually 
destructive opinions, and turn to the actual statis- 
tics which bear on immigration and its results. 

Mr White speaks of " an ever - increasing 
horde of undesirable foreigners pouring into 
this country." It is for the Commissioners to 



" The peculiar characteristics 
usually associated with the 
Hebrew community are not 
religious, but racial. ... Of 
the Jewish aristocrat I do not 
speak in this book. The 
advantages reaped by England 
from the Hebrew aristocracy, 
not only material but intellec- 
tual and artistic, require no 
comment. They are notorious. 
It is the presence of this class 
which has done most to prevent 
the outbreak of anti-Semitismin 
England, to allay impatience, 
and postpone action to restrict 
the ever - increasing horde of 
undesirable foreigners who are 
pouring into this coimtry." 
And elsewhere Mr White adds : 
"I should not be surprised to 
watch unpopularity ripen into 
jealousy, and even hate, among 
the common people." — A. White, 
"The Modern Jew," pp. 4, 5. 



IV.] A TEST BY FIGURES 61 

decide if these epithets are well chosen. To us, at 
least, it seems an elementary example of begging 
the question, to speak of the 12,857 foreign 
settlers of 1900 as a " horde," to describe their 
increase of 793 over the grand total of 1899 
as ever-increasing," to assume without definite 
proof that they are all "undesirable," and to 
use the term " pouring " of their orderly arrival. 
Certainly the Board of Trade, in its Report on 
the immigration of 1900, concludes that, "in 
spite of the large influx of aliens in 1900, only 
London, and to a less extent Manchester, have 
experienced any notable increase in the numbers 
of the resident destitute alien class." The figures 
just quoted are reached by deducting the emigrant 
foreigners from the immigrant, a rough-and-ready, 
but by no means unfair method of estimating 
the number of fresh alien residents. We append 
the detailed statistics for the following year 
(1901-02) to illustrate the working of the sum: — 



There came in from the Continent . 702,555 

There went out to the Continent . 613,843 

Excess of Continental Immigration 

over Emigration . . . . 88,712 



Deduct from this the excess of 
foreigners emigrating to places 
outside Europe over those emi- 
grating from such places . . 64,616 
Also, seamen, who on arriving are 
reckoned as immigrants, but of 
whom there is no record when 
they leave as members of crews . 15,146 

79,762 

Net increase of foreign population as 

a result of the passenger movement 8,950 



62 



PRESENT CONDITIONS [chap. 



A word is due in this place as to the subse- 
quent history of the immigrants in East London. 
Lurid pictures have been drawn of their dirty 
and destitute condition, and for a time at least 
the picture is probably not untrue. But the 
adaptability of these people is a valuable asset to 
themselves, and, as we venture to think, a valu- 
able asset too to those among whom they settle. 
The desire to improve is innate in a Jew; his 
neighbour is more often content to "muddle 
through" as he began. By the impartial evi- 
dence of Mr Russell, we learn of these alien 
immigrants that "the transformation effected 
by an English training is astonishing in its 
completeness. All the children who pass through 
an elementary school may be said to grow up 
into * English Jews ' " ; and the reader who wishes 
to see this transformation in practice should pay 
a visit one day to, say, the Gravel Lane Board 
School, and should study the statistics of the 
Jewish school attendance in East London. No 
better corrective could be applied to the 
symptoms of incipient anti-Semitism. 

Next, as to the Jews in general. We may be 
told that the presence of a Jewish community 
in England is not yet acutely dangerous because 
of the smallness of its numbers. But, as a 
matter of fact, the proportion of Jews to non- 
Jews is larger in the United Kingdom than 
in France, for example, where anti-Semitism, 



IV.] 



COMPARATIVE STATISTICS 



63 



despite its German origin, has recently assumed 
its most virulent shape and form. The figures, 
which we borrow from the " Jewish Year Book," 
are as follows : — 



Country. 


Jewish 
Population. 


Total 
Population. 


Percentage. 


Great Britain . . 
France .... 


179,000 
86,885 


41,454,573 
38,595,500 


0-43 
0'22 



In other words, with a total population of about 
forty m.illions in each instance, there are twice 
as many British Jews as French Jews ; and yet 
anyone who followed the extraordinary course 
of the Dreyfus affair in France would have 
thought, without this evidence, that the Jews 
in the Bepublic were considerably in excess of 
their Romanist vilifiers. Even in smaller spheres 
the facts contradict the impressions. There is 
more talk of anti-Semitism in London than in 
Manchester ; but to every hundred citizens of 
Manchester there are 4*60 Jews, to every 
hundred of Londoners there are only 1*58 Jews. 
In Holland, again, the proportion of Jews to 
non-Jews is as high as two per cent., nearly 
ten times as high as in France, and far higher 
than the percentages of Germany (1*04) and 
of the United States (1*38) respectively, where 
anti-Semitism, as an economic or social force, 



64 PRESENT CONDITIONS [chap. 

has to be taken into account. Yet the Dutch 
Jews are completely free from any experience 
of that kind. 

These comparative statistics, dull reading 
though they may be, are extremely significant 
of the hollo wness of the anti-Semitic movement. 
Mr Arnold White begs the people of this 
country to take warning by the example of 
the French. 

"Humanity," he says, "does not change its 
spirit in a day, a week, or a century; and we 
English have no right, therefore, to anticipate 
that when the Jews arrive at the position in 
Great Britain which they occupy in France to- 
day, the conduct of the bulk of them will be 
more humane, enlightened, or unselfish towards 
us than it has been towards the French." 

The oracle is a trifle cryptic ; and we fail to 
see why the position occupied by the Jews in 
France to-day should be one towards which 
British Jews aspire. There are twice as many 
Jews in England as in France ; and if they are 
afflicting France with rods, they should be 
afflicting England with scorpions. But is it so ? 
or is it the fact that the charge of inhumanity, 
want of enlightenment, and selfishness recoils 
on the nation which, with the smaller Jewish 
community, has yet set an example of Jew- 
baiting unparalleled in modern history? We 
give Mr White his Captain Dreyfus, whom he 



IV.] A GERMAN VIEW OF ANTI-SEMITISM 65 



is pleased to patronise as ''a hero and a man," 
adding "one more to the long line of Jewish 
worthies whose annals adorn the history of the 
race." The Dreyfus episode is not necessary to 
turn the point of Mr White's warning. The 
different aspects of the Jewish problem in Eng- 
land and in France are not due to a difference 
in the Jews — ^the evidence of numbers proves 
it — but to a difference in the non- Jews ; and 
there we may leave the matter. 

We referred just now to the birthplace of 
anti-Semitism, and the German author of its 
being. It may be instructive to read a fresh 
account of the movement from the pen of a 
German writer, a Christian, and a university 
professor, who may be presumed to speak with- 
out Jewish predilection. Dr Theobald Ziegler, 
of Strassburg University, in his history of " The 
Intellectual and Social Development of the 
Nineteenth Century" (a volume of over seven 
hundred pages in Schlenther's " Germany in 
the Nineteenth Century" series), shows that 
the Jews were made the scapegoat of the 
financial crash which succeeded the " boom " 
of 1871. The disastrous effects of that crash 
are becoming more apparent every day ; but, 
when the "plungers" were hurt, they conven- 
iently forgot that it was Eduard Lasker, a Jew, 
who was the first to protest in the Prussian 
Diet, in 1873, against the dance round the 



66 



PRESENT CONDITIONS 



[chap. 



golden calf. That Jews took part in the riot 
of speculation and the excesses of the Press no 
one would attempt to deny ; but the weight 
and virulence of the attack upon them are not 
to be accounted for by this fact. There was 
first the need of a scapegoat ; there was next 
the German revival, inevitable after a great war, 
of which Treitschke made himself the mouth- 
piece, and Avhich was equally concerned to expel 
foreign blood and foreign words. This national 
revival was associated, as we have already seen, 
with a political-religious movement, which worked 
downwards from a circle of Court ladies, fasci- 
nated by Stocker's eloquence, and which, though 
Stocker is out of favour and disgraced, operates 
to-day so far that no ladies' committee of any 
charitable institution can hope for imperial 
patronage if the name of a Jewess is on the 
list. Thus everything was ready for the national 
party of Christian Socialists, who found in the 
prejudice and superstition of rural Germany, 
and in the envy of impoverished nobles in the 
cities, a receptive soil for the seeds of Jew-hatred 
pure and simple. And so Professor Ziegler can 
write, with a rare sense of historical justice : — 

" The Jewish usurer's rod has been bound by 
Christians themselves [who excluded the Jews 
for several centuries from every business except 
finance]. ... It can hardly be gainsaid that the 
Jews are liable to blame at many points, and 



IV.] FOUNDED ON HATE AND ENVY 67 

have often given real cause for hate and con- 
tempt by malpractices on the Stock Exchange, 
by money-lending in rural districts, by the 
effrontery of Jewish journalists, and by their 
cHque-like push and activity in professional and 
academic life. We are completely justified in 
resisting these tendencies. But the anti-Semitic 
movement . . . still remains for us Germans a 
gi^eat and a unique reproach. It contradicts the 
tolerant basis of our nature, it is impatient and 
chauvinistic, immoderate and unjust. Nor can a 
purpose be discerned in it. A petition to the 
Reichstag to revoke the political equality of the 
Jews would have to be rejected, as it is at 
variance with our constitutional principles ; and 
if Diihring's proposal for the ' dejudaisation ' of 
the country be attentively considered, it will be 
seen how impracticable it is, and how his sug- 
gested exceptional treatment of the Jews is 
opposed to our whole modern conception of the 
State, and of the position of the individual in it. 
Our State to-day is neither exclusively Christian 
nor exclusively German ; it comprises Poles, 
Danes, and Frenchmen, and it is absurd to pre- 
tend that a few hundred thousand Jews will 
choke it. The idea that ill treatment will induce 
the Jews to quit Germany of their own accord, 
and the consequent movement of the Zionists 
towards a national Jewish State in Palestine, is 
wholly Utopian and anachronistic, and it merely 
interrupts the process of assimilation already 
begun with success. Nothing, then, remains 
but hate and envy, which are the corner-stones 
of no political party — hardly even of a students' 
club." 



With this temperate criticism we 



68 



PRESENT CONDITIONS [chap. iv. 



bring to a close our examination of the Jewish 
problem, and of the various solutions that are 
proposed for it. We reject the solutions, severally 
and collectively. No one of them, in our opinion, 
is based on an adequate study of the nature 
of the Jews, and of the restitution due from 
Christendom to Israel for centuries of bondage 
and oppression. 



CHAPTER V 



SPIRITUAL FORCES IN JUDAISM 

We come now to the last section of our inquiry. 
If we are right in our contention that the only 
possible solution of the Jewish question is the 
solution by time, that the Jews of each country 
must work out for themselves (with such help 
as they may receive from better-civilised Powers) 
their emancipation and their religious liberty, 
then it is fair to ask. What kind of Jews will 
be evolved out of these conditions? To what 
kind of Jewish population shall the nations of 
Christendom look forward, when they them- 
selves have learned to practise the Gospel of 
Christ ? This question must be answered by 
considering the Jews of England, not from the 
statistician's point of view, which deals with 
averages and the mass, but from the point of 
view of the man who cares for his country, 
and who honestly tries to trace the forces of 
national character, while still in the making. 

The search bristles with difficulties. We 
incur the serious risk of ofFendinff a section 



70 SPIRITUAL FORCES IN JUDAISM [chap. 



of our fellow-countrymen, who may justly 
claim that neither by pohtical sentiment, nor 
by intellectual disposition, nor yet by social 
status, do they form a sect apart. This in 
itself is an important feature — that there is no 
specific Jewish interest differentiating the Jews 
from the rest of the King's subjects. So far 
as it exists, it exists for the Jews alone; they 
cheerfully accept its burden in addition to their 
civil duties, and the obligation of the first is 
never allowed to clash with the prior obligation 
of the second. Within our observation, at least, 
there is no point in our common life where 
action is arrested or hampered by the thought. 
This will alienate the Jewish vote," or " This 
will offend Jewish opinion." Even in the 
question of alien immigration, a Jewish member 
of the House of Lords sits on the Commission, 
and a Jewish member of the House of Commons 
was among those who approved its appointment. 
This, then, is equivalent to saying that, in the 
comparatively few years since the date of their 
emancipation, the Jews of Great Britain have 
identified themselves with the nation to which 
they belong ; and thus, in a sense, it is an im- 
pertinence to attempt to draw a line of differ- 
ence, and to ask what contribution has been 
made by those outside the line to the interests 
of those inside it. Any such attempt will only 
serve to create a Jewish question where it does 



v.] A COMMON FORM OF PREJUDICE 71 



not exist. Accordingly, we may refrain from 
elaborating the obvious. We need not pause 
to point out that Jewish workers are found in 
all the learned professions — that a Jew has been 
Master of the Rolls, a Jew has been Deputy 
Speaker, a Jew is a Colonial Governor, and so 
forth, and so forth. This method of defence 
is hardly less insolent than the method of attack, 
beloved by men like Mr White, who speaks 
of a "Jewish island in the sea of English 
life." 

One thing, however, we may be permitted to 
point out. The term "the Jew" carries with 
it at least this implication of solidarity, that 
the fault or folly of one Jew is reflected in 
popular opinion on the Jews as a whole. 
Every Jew of evil eminence is taken as a 
type. A Jewish murder, a Jewish divorce, a 
Jewish embezzlement, a Jewish case of usury, 
even a particularly "loud" costume or lux- 
urious equipage, if the property of Jews, is 
imputed not merely to the sinful agent but 
to the Jewish community en hloc. There is a 
merciless argument from the particular instance 
to the general rule. The unfairness will be 
obvious to anyone who honestly reflects how 
hable he is to that form of prejudice. 

At the same time it cannot be concealed 
that in Israel, as elsewhere, the material tends 
to encroach upon the spiritual — not merely the 



72 



SPIRITUAL FORCES IN JUDAISM [chap. 



materialism of prosperity, but the grosser symbols 
of a faith which is losing its religious sanction. 
The Chief Rabbi agrees with the Bishop of 
London in deploring the falling-ofF at divinQ_ 
worship on the Sabbath. The Jews, though 
they possess an excellent body of clergy, suffer 
to some extent, as in every non-established 
Church, from a lack of cultivated English 
ministers. The professional demands of ortho- 
doxy are, perhaps, too strong to attract the 
class of young men who would bring fresh life 
into the synagogue. Signs of this are dis- 
coverable in provincial congregations, where 
the minister of religion and instructor of the 
young is too often compelled to officiate as the 
local authority for the execution of the dietary 
laws, and in other less exalted capacities. 
Jewish youth, growing up amid Western ideas, 
revolts from this religion of " pots and pans," 
and misses the spiritual meaning which conse- 
crates the symbolism. Their elders abandon 
with reluctance the forms for which their 
fathers suffered ; they dread the consequent 
alienation of their less advanced brothers in 
faith ; and they fail to find, in the desiccated 
forms of public worship which remain, an 
adequate compensation for the warmth and 
light, and the sense of intimate familiarity, 
which made Judaism a household creed. This 
partial failure of Judaism, in its appeal through 



v.] TENDENCY TO MATERIALISM 73 



symbols of worship to the hunger of the rehgious 
soul, makes the Jews especially liable to the 
temptations of materialism on the side of con- 
duct. By natural instinct and ethical code they 
are the people of prosperity ; their temperament 
is indomitably cheerful, their public worship is a 
familiar joy ; and not all the schooling of adversity, 
in which they have exhibited such remarkable for- 
titude, has alienated their blessing. No experi- 
ence, no example, no suffering, will make ascetics 
of the Jews ; it is their nature to give more gladly 
than to give up, to spend more eagerly than to 
spare. Yet, holding the blessing, they should 
cultivate the virtue ; they should aim, in Bacon's 
language, at temperance in prosperity. What- 
ever may be the case in other countries, in 
England at least, we feel convinced, if non- 
Jews and Jews are to continue to work together 
for the land they love, Israel must win respect, 
not alone for his history and his character, but 
for his present faith and ideals. Dowered with 
a nature richly capable of pleasure and enjoy- 
ment, and practising a religion deficient, or un- 
developed, on the actively spiritual side, pros- 
perous Israel tends to become self-indulgent 
and self-assertive, fond of display, and material 
in sentiment. 

This tendency may be alleged in general terms 
without much fear of contradiction, and without 
incurring the charge of condemning the many 



74 



SPIRITUAL FORCES IN JUDAISM [chap. 



for the faults of the few. But it is the utmost 
extent to which that argument may go, and we 
should hesitate to use it without a qualifying 
clause except that the Jews themselves would 
readily admit it. In the pages of the Jewish 
Quarteidy Revieiv, and in other current periodicals, 
the fact is admitted and deplored, and various 
efforts are made for the spiritual regeneration 
of Israel. It is, perhaps, in those efforts, rather 
than in the evil which they seek to cure, that we 
should look for the signs of the tendency of 
modern Jewish thought. The violent change 
from repression to emancipation was bound to 
lead to a certain amount of revolt from tradi- 
tional Judaism and of self-assertion on the part 
of the newly free. This is merely a transition 
stage, and it is already clear that advanced 
thinkers in Israel are leading their co-religionists 
to the perception of a higher ideal. There is 
considerable spiritual activity within the Jewish 
community. It is manifested by the constant 
formation of new leagues and associations, in- 
tended to develop the spiritual powers, and to 
adapt the orthodox creed to the needs of a 
wider horizon. The synagogue, like the uni- 
versities in these democratic days, is being 
" extended " by societies of divers kinds. Thus, 
to select but a few from the names in the 
" Jewish Year Book," there is the Jewish Study 
Society, founded in 1900, **to deepen interest 



THE OLD AND THE NEW 



75 



in Judaism by increasing among Jews the 
knowledge of their rehgion, history, and Utera- 
ture ; " there is the East London Jewish Com- 
munal League, "to promote the religious, 
intellectual, and social status of Jewish young 
men and women, and to enlist their sympathies 
and active co-operation in communal affairs ; " 
there are the Maccabeans who aim at "social 
intercourse and co-operation, with a view to 
the promotion of the interests of the Jewish 
race ; " the Union of Jewish Women Workers, 
the Jewish Congregational Union, the Jewish 
Religious Union, etc. 

Thus, the alleged materialism of Israel is 
visibly the object of a vigorous attack from 
inside. But the task of spiritual regeneration 
is rendered difficult and slow, because the old 
and the new are at war, and because Jewish 
piety and Western decorum set such different 
standards of woi^ship. Sixty years ago a body 
of Jews in London attempted to reconcile the 
two by founding the Reform Congregation of 
British Jews. The feehng in the orthodox 
Hebrew community against these secessionists 
was very bitter for some years ; Sir Moses 
IVIontefiore, for instance, continued to regard 
them as apostates till nearly the end of his long 
life. That feeling has died out; and Reform 
Congregations in JNIanchester and Bradford are 
now affiliated to the London Synagogue, all 



76 



SPIRITUAL FORCES IN JUDAISM [chap. 



differing toto ccelo from reformers on the Con- 
tinent and in the United States, with their 
Sunday services, their abandonment of Hebrew, 
and their exaggerated deference to the superficial 
customs of their non- Jewish neighbours. The 
Reform movement, perhaps, has not been wholly 
a success ; at all events, it is still open to amend- 
ment with a view to harmonising both ideals. 
It is enough to note these tendencies, and it 
is not our place to indicate to the leaders of 
the Jewish community in England the precise 
nature of the further changes necessary in 
order to give more effective expression to the 
spiritual elements in Judaism. Few would deny 
that they are liable to be too heavily overlaid 
with minuticB of observance, beautiful, indeed, 
in their symbolical sense, but tending some- 
times, in this short life of many duties, to be 
performed as substitutes instead of as symbols. 
But as to the ultimate harmony of the new 
and old, no real doubt can be maintained. The 
miraculous preservation of the Jews is itself 
an argument for their election. By every law 
and rule of history they should have been ex- 
terminated long since, yet we see them to-day 
in all parts of the world, fighting steadily and 
pertinaciously for the purpose they are set to 
fulfil. That purpose carries with it the bar on 
inter-marriage, which, despite occasional breaches, 
is still jealously observed by the overwhelming 



v.] THE PRIESTS OF HISTORY 77 

majority of Jews as an essential condition of 
survival, but it carries v^ith it no other bar on 
national self-consciousness, political economy, or 
social intercourse. 

A people should be judged by the height of 
its aspirations, and not by its lowest achieve- 
ment. Carlyle praises his Hero-priest because 
he does what is in him to introduce his ideals 
into practice, " and wears out, in toil, calumny, 
contradiction, a noble life, to make a God's 
Kingdom of this Earth." Is not this an account 
in epitome of the history of the Jews, the priests 
by precedence of heroic story, the eternal wor- 
shipping the Eternal? 

Thus, Mr Claude Montefiore, whose "Bible 
for Home Reading" is the children's text-book 
which is used in most Jewish homes in this 
country, has written the following passages in 
the concluding chapter of his second volume : — 

"The Biblical doctrines about goodness and 
God are mixed up with the history of Israel. 
They are found in a national framework. 
The Jews stand in some intimate relation to 
these doctrines. They are their guardians and 
their propagators. We were not able to 
accept all that is contained in the Bible 
about the relation of the Jews to God and to 
their fellowmen ; but the highest doctrine of 
the Hebrew scripture on these subjects was 
alike convincing and inspiring. The highest 
doctrine may be said to include the notion 
that God is the Father of all men, and that 



78 



SPIRITUAL FORCES IN JUDAISM [chap. 



He cares for all without distinction of race or 
creed. . . . 

" What place or function has Israel if all men 
are equally God's children ? Has it only a place 
or function according to the lower or more 
national teaching of the Hebrew Scriptures, 
according to which, in contradiction to the 
theory of the impartial Divine Fatherhood and 
the fraternity of man, Israel is or will be specially 
'favoured ' by God ? No. Just in proportion as the 
higher doctrine of God and man is recognised and 
understood, does the position and function of Israel 
become higher and more spiritual. The 'king- 
dom of priests ' must exercise its priestly functions 
for the benefit of the world. The Jews are called 
for a special purpose : to them the knowledge of 
God came early in their history; they have to 
undergo a special training, a purification as if by 
fire. 'You only have I known out of all the 
families of the earth : therefore will I visit upon 
you all your iniquities.' We recall the solemn 
words of the second Isaiah, which have never 
been renounced or denied by any subsequent 
Jewish teacher, though they have often been 
obscured and forgotten : ' Behold, INIy servant 
whom I uphold ; My chosen, in whom My soul 
delighteth : I have put My Spirit upon Him ; He 
shall bring forth true religion to the nations. 
He shall not clamour nor cry, nor cause His 
voice to be heard in the street. A bruised reed 
shall He not break, and a dimly burning wick 
shall he not quench : He shall bring forth true 
religion faithfully. He shall not burn dimly, 
nor shall His spirit be crushed, till He have set 
true religion in the earth ; and the isles shall wait 
for His teaching.' And again of the ideal Israel, 
whose duty extends beyond the limits of his own 



v.] ELECTION OF SPIRITUAL PRIVILEGE 79 



people to the world at large, the words were 
spoken : 'It is too light a thing that Thou 
shouldst be my servant to raise up the tribes of 
Jacob, and to restore the preserved of Israel : I 
will also give Thee for a light to the nations, 
that My salvation may be unto the end of the 
earth.' And finally we remember the great 
passage about the Servant who suffered for the 
sake of others, a passage which in all probability 
refers to the best and purest spirits in Israel 
suffering for the sake of the nation as a whole. 
. . . ' He bare our sickness and carried our 
pains ; yet did we esteem Him stricken, smitten 
of God and afflicted. But He was wounded 
for our transgressions. He was crushed for our 
iniquities : the chastisement of our peace was 
upon Him ; and through His stripes we have 
been healed. All we like sheep had gone astray; 
we turned everyone to his own way ; and the 
Lord made to light on Him the guilt of us all.' 

" Clearly the teaching of all these various 
passages must be recast and reinterpreted to 
suit the exigencies of our own time. Into this 
I cannot enter, but what is plainly put before 
us is a conception according to which Israel is 
called to serve, to suffer and to teach, and not 
conquer, to triumph and to enjoy. It is an 
election of spiritual privilege and of spiritual 
responsibility. 

" In harmony with the highest teaching of 
the Bible about Israel is its highest teaching 
about the future. God wills that His world, the 
world of man, shall become better, not worse. 
With the optimism of faith the Hebrew seers 
and poets look forward to a Golden Age : they 
do not relegate it to a distant and irrecoverable 
past. Righteousness and peace shall at last pre- 



80 



SPIRITUAL FORCES IN JUDAISM [chap. v. 



vail. ' They shall beat their swords into plough- 
shares, and their spears into pruning - hooks : 
nation shall not lift up sword against nation, 
neither shall they know war any more.' This 
is the final issue of Israel's work. . . . Such is 
the exalted hope, ethical and religious in one, 
world-wide in its range, spiritual in its good, 
which the highest teachers of the Bible explicitly 
connect and co-ordinate with the mission and 
the destiny of Israel. . . . They form, to my 
thinking, the essence of Judaism." 

And while Jewish children are taught a 
religion of this rare spiritual texture, shall we 
say with the enemies of the Jews that they 
"stifle" national life "by the substitution of 
material aims for those which, however faultily, 
have formed the unselfish and imperial objects 
of the Enghshmen who have made the Empire " ? 
or shall we not rather say that Jewish unselfish- 
ness and imperialism form a part of the com- 
posite foundation on which the British Empire 
rests by virtue of its unique skill in welding all 
its parts into one whole ? 



APPENDIX. 



I— STATISTICS OF JEWISH POPULATION. 

(a) The following Table, reproduced by permission from the 
Jewish Year Book, 1902-03, furnishes at a glance the percentage 
of the Jewish population to the total population in the principal 
countries of the world. The figures should be studied in connec- 
tion with the remarks on pages 62-64 above — 



Country. 


Jewish 


Total 


1 

j Percentage of 


Population. 


Population. 


Jews. 


Palestine 


60.000 


180,000 


33-33 


Hungary- 


851,378 


19,207,103 


04-43 


Russian Empire . 


5,189,401 


125,668,000 


04-13 


Rouraania . 


243,000 


5,912,600 


04 11 


Austria 


1,143,000 


26,150,597 


04-80 


Morocco 


150,000 


6,000,000 


03-00 


Holland 


103,988 


5,179,100 


02-00 


United States of America 


1,045,555 


76,085,794 


01-38 


Prussia 


375,716 


31,855,123 


01-11 


Germany 


586,948 


56,367,178 


01-04 


Algeria 


44,207 


4,739,331 


00-93 


Bulgaria 


28,307 


3,733,189 


00-76 


Luxemburg . 


1,200 


236,543 


00-50 


Great Britain 


179,000 


41,454,573 


00-43 


Persia .... 


35,000 


9,000,000 


00-39 


Switzerland . 


12,551 


3,315,443 


00-38 


Australasia . 


16,678 


4,557,323 


00-36 


Greece .... 


8,350 


2,433,806 


00-34 


Canada 


16,432 


5,369,666 


00-30 


Egypt. 


25,300 


9,734,405 


00-26 


France 


86,885 


38,595,500 


00-22 


New Zealand 


1,611 


772,719 


00-20 


Servia .... 


5,102 


2,493,770 


00-20 


Denmark 


5,000 


2,464,770 


00-20 


Belgium 


12,000 


6,687,651 


00-18 


Italy .... 


44,037 


32,449,754 


00-13 


Norway and Sweden . 


5,000 


7,376,321 


00-07 


India .... 


22,000 


294,266,701 


00-07 


Portugal 


1,200 


5,428,659 


00-02 


Spain .... 


2,500 


18,089,500 


00-01 



APPENDIX I. 



STATISTICS OF JEWISH WPJILATIOIS^—Coiitinued. 

(b) A similar Table has been worked out in order to furnish the 
percentage of the Jewish population to the total population in 
the principal cities of the world. These figures are in some 
respects more important than those in the last Table. The Jews 
tend to city life by habit and taste, as well as by the necessity 
imposed by their dietary laws and by the facilities of public 
worship — 



City. 


Jewish 


Total 


Percentage of 


i*opul3«t;ion. 


Population. 


Jews. 


Botosani 


25,000 


35,000 


71-43 


Jassy .... 


45,000 


78,067 


67-69 


Odessa 


120,000 


209,085 


57-14 


Saloiiica . . . 


60,000 


105,000 


57-14 


Lomza 


14,000 


26,075 


53-84 


Cracow 


45^000 


91,323 


49-28 


Jerusalem 


23,000 


50,000 


46-00 


Mogador 


8,676 


19,000 


45-66 


Minsk .... 


40,000 


91,494 


43-71 


Tangier 


12,000 


30,000 


40-00 


Kovno 


28,000 


75,543 


37-06 


Warsaw 


255,160 


712,000 


35-82 


Wilna. 


50,000 


154,532 


29-03 


Lemberg 
Bagdad 


40,000 


159,875 


25-00 


35,000 


145,000 


24-14 


Budapestli . 


168,985 


732,322 


23-08 


Galatz .... 


12,000 


62,678 


19-17 


Corfu .... 


3,500 


17,918 


19-00 


Adrianople . 


15,000 


81,000 


18-52 


Bucharest . . 


40,000 


282,071 


14-11 


Amsterdam . 


56,000 


520,602 


10-76 


New York . 


860,000 


3,437,202 


10-59 


Larissa 


1,500 


15,000 


10-00 


Prague 


20,000 


201,589 


09-92 


Johannesburg 


10,000 * 


102,078 * 


09-80 


Philippopolis 


4,000 


42,849 


09-34 


Vienna 


150,000 


1,674,957 


08-95 


Frankfort a/m 


22,000 


288,489 


07-63 


Gibraltar 


2,000 


27,640 


07-30 


Aden .... 


3,000 


41,222 


07-28 


Damascus . 


10,000 


140,600 


07-11 


Kiew .... 


16,000 


247,432 


06-06 


Philadelphia 


75,000 


1,293,697 


06-80 



* 1896. 



APPENDIX 1. 83 



STATISTICS OF JEWISH VOFVLATIO^— Continued. 



City. 


Jewish 


Total 


Percentage of 


Population. 


Population. 


Jews. 


Cincinnati . 


18,000 


325,902 


05-52 


Mayence 


4,300 


84,500 


05-10 


Posen .... 


5,810 


117,014 


05-00 


Berlin .... 


86,152 


1,884,151 


04-56 


Constantinople . 


60,000 


1,125,000 


04-44 


Breslau 


18,440 


422,738 


04-36 


Leghorn 


4,000 


98,505 


04-06 


Chicago 


60,000 


1,698,575 


03-53 


Alexandria . 


10,000 


319,766 


03-13 


Montreal 


8,000 


266,826 


02-99 


Hamburg . 


17,308 


625,552 


02-76 


Cologne 


10,000 


372,229 


02-68 


Nuremburg . 


6,500 


260,743 


02-49 


Paris .... 


58,000 


2,660,000 


02-18 


Kbnigsberg . 


4,076 


187,897 


02-16 


Munich 


9,500 


498,503 


01-90 


Hanover 


4.151 


235,666 


01-76 


Cairo .... 


10,000 


570,062 


01-75 


Rome .... 


8,000 


463,000 


01-73 


Antwerp 


4,500 


285,600 


01-58 


London 


104,550 


6,581,327 


01-58 


Sydney 


6,000 


451,000 


01-33 


Melbourne . 


5,500 


493,956 


01-11 


Turin .... 


5,000 


335,639 


01-49 


Toronto 


3,000 


207,971 


01-44 


Bordeaux . 


3,000 


257,471 


01-17 


Brussels 


6,500 


561,782 


01-16 


Copenhagen 


3,500 


313,000 


01-11 


Marseilles . 


5,500 


494,769 


01-11 


Leipzig 


4,844 


455,089 


01-06 


Bombay 


5,020 


770,843 


00-65 


Lyons .... 


2,636 


453,145 


00-58 


Athens 


300 


111,486 


00-27 


St Petersburg 


2,800 


1,267,023 


00-22 


Lisbon 


250 


308,000 


00-08 


Madrid 


300 


498,000 


00-06 



84 



APPENDIX 11. 



IL~STATISTICS OF JEWISH SCHOOL ATTENDANCE. 

The following Tables are taken from the Jewish Year Booh : — 



CHILDREN IN JEWISH VOLUNTARY SCHOOLS, 1901-2. 





Boys. 


Girls. 


Infants. 


Total. 


Abroad. 


Born in 


Foreign 
Par'nts. 


England 

Native 
Par'nts. 


Jews' Free School 


2,243 


1,239 




3,482 


1,108 


2,079 


295 


Infant Schools 




1,898 


1,898 


387 


1,411 


100 


Stepney Jewish . 


438 


296 


175 


909 


58 


443 


408 


Bayswater Jewish 


130 


93 


81 


304 


51 


200 


53 


Westminster 


313 


304 




617 


149 


449 


19 


Norwood Asylum 


182 


140 




322 


14 


260 


48 


Deaf and Dumb . 


23 


20 




43 


16 


18 


9 


South London 


104 


78 


"70 


252 


23 


86 


143 


Thrawl Street . 




145 


186 


331 


25 


163 


143 


Hayes Industrial . 


"47 






47 


16 


29 


2 


Total 


3,480 


2,316 


2,410 


8,205 


1,847 


5,138 


1,220 



JEWISH CHILDREN in other VOLUNTARY SCHOOLS, 1901-2. 





Boys. 


Girls. 


Infants. 


Total. 


Born 
Abroad. 


Born in 



Foreign 
Par'nts. 


England 
f 

Native 
Par'nts. 


All Saints, Bethnal 
















Green . . 


3 


3 


5 


11 






11 


All Saints, Margaret 
















Street 


2 


2 


13 


17 


6 


11 




Church St., Stoke New. 


6 


10 


5 


21 




3 


"18 


Davenant School, E. . 


3 


5 


15 


23 


"2 


2 


19 


* Christchurch, Brick 
















Lane 


20 


37 


58 


115 


12 


73 


30 


Green Street, Bow 


4 


4 


4 


12 


1 


9 


2 


Latimer Foundation, 
















Hammersmith . 


17 






17 




4 


13 


Carried forward . 


55 


61 


100 


216 


21 


102 


93 



* The Jewish Religious Education Board holds (or subsidises) classes at this School. 



APPENDIX II. 



85 



JEWISH CHILDREN in other VOLUNTARY SCHOOLS, 1901-2. 
— Continued. 





Boys. 


Girls. 


Infants. 


Total. 


Born 
Abroad. 


Bom in 

c 

Foreign 
Par'nts. 


f 

Native 
Par'nts. 


Brought forward . 


55 


61 


100 


216 


21 


102 


93 


Mowlem Road, Cam- 
















bridgeheath 


9 


13 


30 


52 








Percy Road, Hackney . 


6 


3 


9 


18 




3 


^15 


Raynes School, E. 




47 


68 


115 








St Andi-ew's, Wells St. 
bt Anne s, rJetnnal urn. 


1 


2 


10 


13 


2 


7 


4 


12 


18 


9 


39 


10 






1 a 

lb 


St Anne's, Soho . 


37 


18 


65 


120 








St Augustine's, Kilburn 


38 






38 


7 


20 


11 


St Edward's, Dupon PI. 


2 


"e 


"is 


21 


* 


* 


* 


St James' & St Peter's, 
















Westminster . 


16 


9 


37 


62 


1 


61 




OL lTj.d>l LIU o, VV , 


o 


D 









K 




St Matthias', Bethnal 
















Green 


22 


33 


80 


135 


37 


87 


11 


St Patrick's, Soho 




2 


17 


19 


* 




« 


St Paul's . 


""57 


68 


101 


226 


71 


51 


104 


St Peter's, Netting Hill 
fSt Stephen's, Quaker 


4 


13 


25 


42 


4 


36 


2 
















Street 


50 


50 


150 


250 


* 


* 


* 


Summerford St., N.E. . 


13 


41 


44 


98 


58 


15 


25 


Wesleyan, Hackney 


12 


13 


9 


34 


4 




30 


Total 


336 


403 


769 


1,508 


220 


395 


316 



* No figures available, 
t The Jewish Religious Education Board holds classes at this School. 



86 



APPENDIX 11. 



JEWISH CHILDKEN IN BOAED SCHOOLS, 1901-2. 





Boys. 


Girls. 


Infants. 


Total. 


Born 
Abroad. 


Born in 



Foreign 
Par'nts. 


Sngland 
f 

Native 
Par'nts. 


Audison (jrarclens, b. W. 


13 


12 


5 


30 


10 


14 


6 


t Arbery Road, Bow 


16 


13 


22 


51 


2 


9 


40 


T JbaKer otreet, hi. 


285 


273 


398 


956 


311 


635 


10 


Ben Jonson, Harford St. 


59 


To 

72 


TO 

7z 










Berger Road, Hackney 


20 


26 


7 


53 


* 






T -Derner jstieet, xj. 




6(0 






284 


QA1 

oUi 


1 OO 

12o 


Bessboro' Road, Manor 
















Park 


39 


24 


29 


92 


8 


DO 


16 


Joetts ot. , commercial 
















Road 


141 


172 


oo r 
2,00 


oyo 


OTT 

277 


01 A 

olO 


11 


Bonner Street, Bethnal 
















Green 





o 
O 


1 A 
iU 


1 

io 


2 


1 o 

l2i 


4 


Joroaa btreet, rCatclin . 


1 


5 


10 


Id 


2 


3 


11 


Buckingham Terrace . 


9 


10 


46 


65 


••• 


61 


4 


xiUCK s itow, hi. . 


200 


231 


283 


714 


111 


0J4 


Tn 
79 


Canterbury Road, 3. E. 


4 


2 


4 


lU 




1 A 
10 




Chatham Gardens, 
















Hackney . 






A A 


TQ 

79 


a 



KA 
DO 


2,0 


Charing Cross Road 


5 


5 


OT 

27 


37 








T ChiCKsana btreet, xL. 


409 


389 


cad 


1 /( erT 

1,457 


A Art 

400 


AAA 
900 


1 CT 

lo7 


Christian Street, Com- 














mercial Road 




oio 




01 ft 

yiD 


/ OD 


1 ft 1 
IDi 


1 Q 

iy 


Cleveland Road, lliord 


5 


1 


4 


10 


2 


5 


3 


Columbia Rd. , Hackney 


1 Q 






Do 


i 


Oi 


1 o 
iZ 


Commercial Street, E. . 


ZDZ 


zoo 




'700 

/yy 


4Uo 




1 nft 

iUO 


Curtain Rd. , Shoreditch 


14 


15 


34 


63 








T Jjeai btreet, iii. . 


o An 

04:U 


o41 


oy4 


1 f>TK 

yy 


Q1 ft 

oio 


/Uo 




Dempsey Street, E. 





li 


oo 


1 ft 
iO 


2ll 


Kft 
OD 


Eleanor Rd. , Hackney 


46 


34 


59 


139 


2 


127 




Enfield Road, Hackney 


20 


26 


7 


63 


* 


♦ 




Essex Street, E. . 


28 


80 


27 


85 


22 


37 


26 


Fox St., Netting Hill 


8 


2 


7 


17 




9 


8 


t Gravel Lane, E. 


386 


341 


478 


1,205 


142 


465 


598 


Hague Street, Bethnal 














Green 


6 




4 


10 


1 


5 


4 


t Hanbury Street, E. . 


250 


258 




508 


174 


297 


37 


Highbury (Higher 
















Grade) 


40 


60 


255 


355 


133 


125 


97 


Hindle Street, Hackney 


32 


33 


25 


90 


7 


27 


56 


Kensington Avenue, 
















Manor Park 


10 


4 


14 


28 


6 


18 


4 


London Fields, N.E. . 


34 


36 


39 


109 


6 


90 


13 


Carried forward . 


3330 


3447 


4434 


11,211 


3380 


5834 


1579 



* No figures available, 
t The Jewish Religious Education Board holds classes in this School. 



APPENDIX IL 87 



JEWISH CHILDREN IN BOARD SCHOOLS, 1901-2.— Continued. 















Born in England 




13oys. 


Girls. 


Infants. 


Tn+nl 



Born 
Abroad. 


c 

Forsign 
Par'nts. 


f 

Native 
Par'nts. 


Brought forward 


OOOU 


'i.AA.1 
o44/ 


4404 


11911 

X X , ZX X 


OOou 


5834 


1579 


tLower Chapman St., E. 


ICQ 


Zoo 


ZDo 


Doy 


OQQ 

zoo 


276 


130 


Malniesbiiry Road, E. . 


/ u 






7A 
/ u 


D 


10 


54 


Manor Park 


1 9 


1 


X X 


oo 





18 


17 


Mausford St., Hackney 


1 Q 


Zo 


ID 


f^9 
OZ 


1 A 
lU 


28 


14 


Mannont Rd. , Peckhani 


o 

z 


Q 

o 





1 n 
xu 


1 

1 


1 


8 


JVliiineicis xtu. , ciapion 


A 


lU 


ID 


ou 








T Uici L^astie otreet, jtL. . 




oi L 




R9A 
oZU 


yo 


487 


240 


Orchard St., Hackney. 


z 


Z 


i 


1 1 




5 


6 


T X etei oil eet, oono 


oi 


4Z 


ZUo 


0«1 
ZOl 


* 


* 


* 


jriniuut OLiccu, S2j* . 
VnJUccll o XVLl. , JL'dlal/Ull . 


81 


134 




215 


92 


163 


52 


7 


Q 


2 


18 


g 


5 


5 


XVCU.VCZ3 oL. , jnuAbUJj. 


q 


19 


28 


56 




28 


27 


xtenaiesnam xiu. , C/iap- 
















ton .... 


z 


Q 

y 


/I A 


01 




•X- 


* 


rtocneiie otieet, xLi. 


A 8 


Do 


XoU 


zyD 




* 


* 


Xk llaillllUl c XVU. , XlaUK- 
















ney 


Q 



J. X 


o 


90 




10 


10 


T xvutiana otreet . 


OIL 


1/0 


fiA 
DU 


DUo 


00 


442 


111 


ot jonns ocnooi, rs.iii. 


^ 1 


10 


OZ 


04 


* 




* 


Sandringhani Road, 
















Manorpark 


I 


lU 


A 

4 


01 
Zl 




5 


16 


Scawfell St. , Hackney 
















xvoaa 


11 


1 o 

lo 


ZZ 


A R 
40 





39 


2 


ocrutton ot. , onoreaitcn 


1 1 


14 


14 


oy 




10 


29 


T oecties otreet, Jii. 


A AQ 


4oy 


ODo 


1 /I on 
1, 4yu 


OKQ 
ZOo 


1,032 


200 


onarp &t. , iiingsiana xta. 




y 


Q 

o 


1 o 
IZ 


* 


* 


* 


Sigdon Rd. , Hackney . 


00 


lUl 


1 OA 

IzU 


ZoD 




* 


* 


omitn ot. , Mile iLnd . 


loo 


1 K /I 

104 


Z/ 


ODZ 


* 






Swan Street, City 


45 


60 


71 


176 


22 


78 


76 


Teesdale St., Bethnal Gn. 


2 


3 


9 


14 


1 


5 


8 


iitcnneia ot. , oono 








OQ 
ZO 


QQ 

oy 




♦ 


* 


iraralgar oquare, jL. 


80 


1 AO 

lUo 


zlo 


oyy 


# 






Tottenham Rd., Ball's 
















Pond 


7 


2 


2 


11 




6 


5 


Vallance Rd., Bethnal Gn, 






542 


542 


45 


185 


312 


Virginia Rd. , Shoreditch 


25 


31 


129 


185 


* 


* 


* 


William St. , Chelsea . 


7 


8 


11 


26 


1 


17 


8 


Wilmot St., Bethnal Gn. 


2 


5 


9 


16 




* 


* 


t Wood CI., Bethnal Gn. 


67 


75 


134 


276 


* 




* 


Total Board 


5,574 


5,641 


7,465 


18,680 


4264 


8684 


2909 


Total .Jewish Voluntary 


3,480 
336 


2,315 


2,410 


8,205 


1,847 


5,138 


1,220 


Total Other Voluntary 


403 


769 


1,508 




* 


* 


Grand Total . 


9,390 


8,-359 


10,644 


28,393 


6111 


13,822 


4129 



* No figures available, 
t The Jewish Reli;j:ions Education Board holds classes at this School. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

The following is a list of books, mainly English 
or American, bearing upon the Jewish Question. 
It makes no pretence to completeness, but it 
will be found to comprise the chief sources and 
authorities for a study of the subject in its 
various aspects : — 

Abrahams, Israel. "Jewish Life in the Middle Ages." 
Macmillan. 

Abrahams, I., and Montefiore, C. G. "Aspects of 

Judaism." Macmillan. 
Abrahams, L. B. "Manual of Jewish History." Eleventh 

edition. Kegan Paul. 
Abler, Liebman. " Sabbath Hours." Jewish Publication 

Society of America. 
Aguilar, Grace. "The Women of Israel." Sixth edition. 

"Sabbath Thoughts." 1853. Vallentine. 

„ „ "The Jewish Faith." Vallentine. 

„ „ " The Spirit of Judaism." Vallentine. 
Antin, Mary. "From Plotzk to Boston." Preface by I. 

Zangwill. Clarke, Boston. 
"As Others Saw Him." Heinemann. 
(An attempt to convey the contemporary impression 
created by Jesus Christ among the Jews.) 
Artom, B. "Sermons." Triibner. 

89 



90 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Barclay, Joseph. "The Talmud." John Murray. 

Baron, David. " The Ancient Scriptures and the Modern 
Jew." Hodder & Stoughton. 

Beaton, Bev. P. *'The Jews in the East." Two vols. 
Hurst & Blackett. 

Belisario, M. M. "Sabbath Evenings at Home." 
Vallentine, 

Benisch, a. " Travels of Babbi Petachia." Trlibner. 

Benisch, A. "Judaism Surveyed." 1874. 

Benjamin of Tudela. "Travels." Translated by A. 
Asher. Nutt. 

Benjamin, J. J. "Eight Years in Asia and Africa." 
Vallentine. 

Berkowitz, Henry. "Judaism and the Social Question." 
Philadelphia. 

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